[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The balance between astrocyte and microglia neuroprotection and neurotoxicity defines the tempo of neuronal dysfunction during HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). Astrocytes maintain brain homeostasis and respond actively to brain damage by providing functional and nutritive neuronal support. In HAD, low-level, continuous infection of astrocytes occurs, but the functional consequences of this infection are poorly understood. To this end, human fetal astrocytes (HFA) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were infected with HIV-1DJV and HIV-1NL4-3 (neurotropic and lymphotropic strains respectively) and a pseudotyped Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV/HIV-1NL4-3) prior to intracranial injection into the basal ganglia of severe combined immunodeficient mice. Neuropathological and immunohistochemical comparisons for inflammatory and neurotoxic activities were performed amongst the infected cell types at 7 or 14 days. HIV-1-infected MDM induced significant increases in Mac-1, glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1, and proinflammatory cytokine RNA and/or protein expression when compared with HSV/HIV-1- and HIV-1-infected HFA and sham-operated mice. Levels of neuron-specific nuclear protein, microtubule-associated protein 2, and neurofilament antigens were reduced significantly in the brain regions injected with human MDM infected with HIV-1DJV or VSV/HIV-1. We conclude that HIV-1 infection of astrocytes leads to limited neurodegeneration, underscoring the early and active role of macrophage-driven neurotoxicity in disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lithium (Li) has garnered considerable interest as a neuroprotective drug for a broad range of nervous system disorders. Its neuroprotective activities occur as a consequence of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibition leading to downstream blockade of beta-catenin and Tau phosphorylation. In the present study, we investigated Li-mediated neuroprotective mechanisms in laboratory and murine human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) encephalitis (HIVE) models. In laboratory tests, Li protected neurons from neurotoxic secretions of HIV-1-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). This neuroprotection was mediated, in part, through the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/Akt and GSK-3beta pathways. To examine the effects of Li treatment in vivo, MDMs were injected into the basal ganglia of severe combined immunodeficient mice and then Li was administered (60 mg/kg/d). Seven days after MDM injection, mice were killed and CNS tissue was collected and subjected to immunocytochemical and Western blot assays for leukocyte and neural antigens, GSK-3beta, and key kinase substrates such as beta-catenin and Tau. Numbers of HIV-1 p24 antigen-positive MDMs were unaltered by Li treatment of HIVE mice. Similarly, the greatly increased extent of astrocyte and microglia activation in HIVE mice (10-fold and 16-fold, respectively, compared with unmanipulated controls) was also unaltered by Li. In contrast, Li restored HIVE-associated loss of microtubule-associated protein-2-positive neurites and synaptic density while reducing levels or activity of phospho-Tau Ser202, phospho-beta-catenin, and GSK-3beta. Electrophysiological recordings showed diminished long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices of HIVE mice that were restored by Li. Based on these data, the use of Li as an adjuvant for HIV-1-associated dementia is now being pursued.
No preview · Article · Oct 2005 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relatively few immune-activated and virus-infected mononuclear phagocytes (MP; perivascular macrophages and microglia) may affect widespread neuronal dysfunction during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD). Indeed, histopathological evidence of neuronal dropout often belies the extent of cognitive impairment. To define relationships between neuronal function and histopathology, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H MRSI) and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) were compared with neuronal and glial immunohistology in a murine model of HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). HIV-1(ADA)-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were stereotactically injected into the subcortex of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Sham-operated and unmanipulated mice served as controls. Seven days after cell injection, brain histological analyses revealed a focal giant cell encephalitis, with reactive astrocytes, microgliosis, and neuronal dropout. Strikingly, significant reductions in N-acetyl aspartate concentration ([NAA]) and LTP levels in HIVE mice were in both injected and contralateral hemispheres and in brain subregions, including the hippocampus, where neuropathology was limited or absent. The data support the importance of 1H MRSI as a tool for assessing neuronal function for HAD. The data also demonstrate that a highly focal encephalitis can produce global deficits for neuronal function and metabolism.
No preview · Article · May 2005 · Journal of Neuroscience Research