[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study aimed to compare access to health services and preventive measures by persons with hearing disability and those with normal hearing in Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The sample included 1,842 individuals 15 years or older (52.9% of whom were females). The most frequent income bracket was twice the minimum wage or more, or approximately U$360/month (42.7%). Individuals with hearing disability were more likely to have visited a physician in the previous two months (PR = 1.3, 95%CI: 1.10-1.51) and to have been hospitalized in the previous 12 months (PR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.42-3.14). Regarding mental health, individuals with hearing disability showed 1.5 times greater probability of health care due to mental disorders and 4.2 times greater probability of psychiatric hospitalization as compared to those with normal hearing. Consistent with other studies, women with hearing disability performed less breast self-examination and had fewer Pap smears. The data indicate the need to invest in specific campaigns for this group of individuals with special needs.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil.
A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression.
Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months.
Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · BMC Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of physical violence and its association with sociodemographic aspects, stressful life events, and the use of health services due to emotional problems.
A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with a sample of 1,954 14-year-old or older inhabitants of the city of Canoas (Southern Brazil). They were selected by means of conglomerate sampling according to a pre-established system. Data were obtained in visits to households by means of a confidential semi-structured questionnaire. A bivariate analysis was carried out through multinomial logistic regression, and the multivariate analysis by polytomous logistic regression, categorizing the outcome by age group.
The findings show a prevalence of 9.7% (CI 95%: 8.37;11.03) and association with: women 20 years old and older (OR=2.74; CI 95%: 1.52;4.94); higher schooling rate (p<0.03); higher experience of stressful life events at 20 years of age or more (OR=6.61; CI 95%: 2.71;16.1); and doctors' appointments due to emotional problems as of 10 years of age (p>0.001).
The prevalence of physical violence in the population was significant, resulting in important emotional consequences and impact on health services, requiring capacity building of the professionals in the field.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Revista de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de violência física e sua associação com aspectos sociodemográficos, eventos estressantes e utilização de serviços de saúde por problemas emocionais. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado em amostra de 1.954 sujeitos com 14 anos ou mais, residentes em Canoas, RS, 2002-2003. A amostragem por conglomerados seguiu sistemática pré-estabelecida. Os dados foram coletados em visitas domiciliares com questionário semi-estruturado e confidencial. Foram realizadas as análises: bivariada, por meio de regressão logística multinomial e multivariada, por regressão politômica, categorizando o desfecho por faixa etária. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada prevalência de 9,7% (IC 95%: 8,37;11,03) e associação com: sexo feminino a partir dos 20 anos de idade (OR=2,74; IC 95%: 1,52;4,94), maior escolaridade (p<0,03), maior vivência de eventos estressantes com 20 anos ou mais (OR=6,61; IC 95%: 2,71;16,1) e consulta por problemas emocionais a partir dos 10 anos de idade (p>0,001). CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência da violência física na população foi significativa, com conseqüências emocionais e impacto nos serviços de saúde, requerendo capacitação dos profissionais da área.
Preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Revista de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To provide the first population-based data on deafness and hearing impairment in Brazil.
In 2003, a cross-sectional household survey was conducted of 2,427 persons 4 years old and over. The study population was composed of 1,040 systematically chosen households in 40 randomly selected census tracts (dwelling clusters) in the city of Canoas, which is in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. Hearing function was evaluated in all subjects by both pure-tone audiometry and physical examination, using the World Health Organization Ear and Hearing Disorders Survey Protocol and definitions of hearing levels. The socioeconomic data that were gathered included the amount of schooling of all individuals tested and the income of the head of the household.
It was found that 26.1% of the population studied showed some level of hearing impairment, and 6.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.5%-8.1%) were classified in the disabling hearing impairment group. The prevalence of moderate hearing loss was 5.4% (95% CI = 4.4%-6.4%); for severe hearing loss, 1.2% (95% CI = 0.7%-1.7%); and for profound hearing loss, 0.2% (95% CI = 0.03%-0.33%). The groups at higher risk for hearing loss were men (odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.06-2.23); participants 60 years of age and over (OR = 12.55; 95% CI = 8.38-18.79); those with fewer years of formal schooling (OR = 3.92; 95% CI = 2.14-7.16); and those with lower income (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.06-2.27).
These results support advocacy by health policy planners and care providers for the prevention of deafness and hearing impairment. The findings could help build awareness in the community, in universities, and in government agencies of the health care needs that hearing problems create.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study investigates the use of health services and associated factors in individuals > or = 14 years of age in Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 1,954 persons were interviewed in 40 census tracts. One-year prevalence of hospital admissions was 9.4%. Adjusted data analysis showed that hospitalization was associated with: age > or = 60 years (RP = 4.14; 95% CI: 2.07-8.25), physician visit in the previous two months (RP = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.03-3.83), and > or = 2 stressful life events (RP = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.19-2.80). Individual income of > or = 2.10 times the prevailing minimum wage was associated with decreased likelihood of hospitalization (RP = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.41-0.87). Prevalence of hospital admissions was consistent with other studies. Higher prevalence of hospitalization in lower-income groups may indicate decreased access to primary health care. Other possible factors are higher morbidity and severity of diseases among lower-income groups. Future research should focus on the relationship between morbidity and stressful life events.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Cadernos de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Este estudo transversal investiga a utilização de serviços hospitalares e fatores associados em indivíduos com 14 anos ou mais em Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram entrevistados 1.954 indivíduos de 40 setores censitários. A prevalência de internação hospitalar no período de um ano foi de 9,4%. Na análise ajustada para as demais variáveis, as que permaneceram associadas a uma maior chance de hospitalização foram: idade de 60 anos ou mais (RP = 4,14; IC95%: 2,07-8,25), realização de consulta médica nos últimos dois meses (RP = 2,79; IC95%: 2,03-3,83), a ocorrência de dois ou mais eventos estressantes (RP = 1,83; IC95%: 1,19-2,80). A renda individual, de 2,10 salários mínimos ou mais, esteve associada a uma menor chance de hospitalização (RP = 0,60; IC95%: 0,41-0,87). A prevalência de internações encontrada é compatível com outros estudos. A maior prevalência de hospitalização nos grupos de menor nível sócio-econômico pode indicar um menor acesso aos serviços de atenção básica. Outros fatores envolvidos poderiam ser a maior morbidade e severidade da doença entre os grupos mais pobres. Salienta-se a importância de investigar a relação entre eventos estressantes e morbidade.
Preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Cadernos de Saúde Pública