Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge

University of São Paulo, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (195)183.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of virulence factors in Candida isolates from the oral cavities of 50 patients with different degrees of denture stomatitis (DS, type I, II and III) and 50 individuals without signs of DS. We evaluated the enzymatic and hemolytic activities, the biofilm formation, and the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) in all isolates. Germ tube (GT) production was also evaluated in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis isolates. In C. albicans and C. dubliniensis the secretion of hemolysin and GT production was significantly different between isolates from patients with DS and individuals without DS. No significant difference was observed in the production of virulence factors by Candida glabrata isolates. Candida isolates expressed a wide range of virulence factors. However, in the majority of isolates from the type III lesions, the production of the virulence factors was higher than for the other groups.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the interactions between the species Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata in monotypic and mixed biofilm models formed in vitro as well as the relative expression of the ALS1, ALS3, HWP1, BCR1, EFG1, TEC1, SAP5, PLB2 and LIP9 genes. Material and methods: Mixed (C. albicans/C. krusei and C. albicans/C. glabrata) and monotypic biofilms were cultured for 0, 12 and 24h. Gene expression was analyzed in the same biofilm model in which the number of CFU/mL was counted. Results: The C. albicans CFU/mL values were lower at the 12 and 24h time points in the mixed biofilms compared with the monotypic biofilms, and decreases of 56.23% and 64.4% in C. albicans were observed when this species was associated with C. glabrata and C. krusei, respectively. In the presence of C. krusei, the expression of the ALS3, HWP1, BCR1, EFG1 and TEC1 genes of C. albicans was completely inhibited, indicating both transcriptome and the phenotypic antagonism between these two species, but genes related to the secretion of enzymes were stimulated. In the presence of C. glabrata, C. albicans showed a similar gene expression profile to that obtained in association with C. krusei, though it was altered to a lesser degree. Conclusion: We conclude that C. krusei and C. glabrata may alter or inhibit the mechanisms involved in the in vitro adherence and formation of C. albicans biofilms, influencing the pathogenicity of this species and suggesting a competitive interaction with C. krusei and C. glabrata in biofilm formation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Archives of oral biology
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and/or its products to induce the synthesis of cytokines (TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12) by mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7). Three microorganism preparations were used: live L . rhamnosus (LLR) suspension, heat-killed L . rhamnosus (HKLR) suspension, and the supernatant of a heat-killed L . rhamnosus (SHKLR) suspension, which were cultured with macrophages (37°C, 5% CO 2 ) for 2 h and 30 min. After that, cells were cultured for 16 h. The supernatants were used for the quantitation of cytokines, by ELISA. The results were compared with the synthesis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and analysed, using ANOVA and Tukey test, 5%. LLR and HKLR groups were able to significantly increase the production of TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-10 ( P < 0 . 05 ). SHKLR also significantly increased the production of TNF- α and IL-10 ( P < 0 . 05 ) but not IL-6 ( P > 0 . 05 ). All the L . rhamnosus suspensions were not able to produce detectable levels of IL-1 β or significant levels of IL-4 and IL-12 ( P > 0 . 05 ). In conclusion, live and heat-killed L . rhamnosus suspensions were able to induce the synthesis of different cytokines with proinflammatory (TNF- α and IL-6) or regulatory (IL-10) functions, suggesting the role of strain L . rhamnosus ATCC 7469 in the modulation or in the stimulation of immune responses.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus mutans is an important cariogenic microorganism, and alternative methods for its elimination are required. Different concentrations of Baccharis dracunculifolia essential oil (EO) were tested to determine its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in planktonic cultures, and this concentration was used in S. mutans biofilms. Additionally, we assessed the effect of a 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and saline solution in S. mutans biofilms. The biofilms were grown in discs of composite resin for 48h and exposed to B. dracunculifolia, CHX or saline solution for 5min. The viability of the biofilms was determined by counting the colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) in agar, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). The MIC of the B. dracunculifolia EO to planktonic growth of S. mutans was 6%. In biofilms of S. mutans clinical isolates, B. dracunculifolia EO (6%) and CHX resulted in reductions of 53.3-91.1% and 79.1-96.6%, respectively. For the biofilm formed by the S. mutans reference strain, the reductions achieved with B. dracunculifolia EO and CHX were, respectively, 39.3% and 88.1%. It was concluded that B. dracunculifolia EO showed antibacterial activity and was able to control this oral microorganism, which otherwise causes dental caries.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Infection and Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the antifungal activity of Persea americana extract on Candida albicans biofilm and its cytotoxicity in macrophage culture (RAW 264.7). To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), microdilution in broth (CLSI M27-S4 protocol) was performed. Thereafter, the concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL (í µí±› = 10) with 5 min exposure were analyzed on mature biofilm in microplate wells for 48 h. Saline was used as control (í µí±› = 10). After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and dilutions were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. After incubation (37 ∘ C/48 h), the values of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were converted to log 10 and analyzed (ANOVA and Tukey test, 5%). The cytotoxicity of the P. americana extract was evaluated on macrophages by MTT assay. The MIC of the extract was 6.25 mg/mL and with 12.5 mg/mL there was elimination of 100% of planktonic cultures. Regarding the biofilms, a significant reduction (í µí±ƒ < 0.001) of the biofilm at concentrations of 50 (0.580 ± 0.209 log 10), 100 (0.998 ± 0.508 log 10), and 200 mg/mL (1.093 ± 0.462 log 10) was observed. The concentrations of 200 and 100 mg/mL were cytotoxic for macrophages, while the concentrations of 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL showed viability higher than 55%.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Scientific World Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Although a naturally colonizing microbe, the fungus Candida albicans can be responsible for disease and health problems during weakened health or changes to dental structures. A potential means of controlling this infective microbe is through interactions with a probiotic bacteria. Objectives Our study evaluates the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus species against C. albicans using the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella as an in vivo infection model. Methods We used nine clinical strains of Lactobacillus recovered from the oral cavity to investigate the influence to C. albicans. The oral Lactobacillus strains were isolated from the saliva of 41 healthy patients including the following species: L. paracasei (n = 5), L. rhamnosus (n = 2) and L. fermentum (n = 2). In vitro analysis interrogated the effects of Lactobacillus on the biofilm formation. Since C. albicans uses biofilm formation during a lethal infection in G. mellonella, the changes to larvae survival were monitored during a dual infection process. Results The in vitro results showed that Lactobacillus spp. were able to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation. In the in vivo study, injection of Lactobacillus into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans prolonged survival of these animals. The number of C. albicans CFU/mL recovered from the larval hemolymph was lower in the group inoculated with Lactobacillus compared to the control group. Furthermore, some groups with strains of Lactobacillus were able to increase the hemocyte count compared to the control group with C. albicans. Conclusion Lactobacillus spp. inhibited in vitro biofilm formation by C. albicans and protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo suggesting prokaryotic-eukaryotic interactions.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Candida species are major microorganisms isolated in denture stomatitis (DS), an inflammatory process of the mucosa underlying removable dental prostheses, and express a variety of virulence factors that can increase their pathogenicity. The potential of Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) in planktonic culture, biofilms and virulence factors of Candida strains was evaluated. A total of 48 clinical Candida isolates from individuals wearing removable maxillary prostheses with DS were included in the study. The effects of erythrosine (ER, 200μM) and a green LED (λ 532±10nm, 237mW/cm(2) and 42.63J/cm(2)) in a planktonic culture were evaluated. The effect of the addition of ER at a concentration of 400μM together with a green LED was evaluated in biofilms. The virulence factors of all of the Candida strains were evaluated before and after the PDI process in cells derived from biofilm and planktonic assays. All of the Candida species were susceptible to ER and green LED. However, the biofilm structures were more resistant to PDI than the planktonic cultures. PDI also promoted slight reductions in most of the virulence factors of C. albicans and some of the Candida tropicalis strains. These results suggest that the addition of PDI is effective for reducing yeasts and may also reduce the virulence of certain Candida species and decrease their pathogenicity.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata in mixed infections. Initially, these interactions were studied in biofilms formed in vitro. CFU/mL values of C. albicans were lower in mixed biofilms when compared to the single biofilms, verifying 77% and 89% of C. albicans reduction when this species was associated with C. glabrata and C. krusei, respectively. After that, we expanded this study for in vivo host models of experimental candidiasis. G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic Candida suspensions for analysis of survival rate and quantification of fungal cells in the haemolymph. In the groups with single infections, 100% of the larvae died within 18 h after infection with C. albicans. However, interaction groups achieved 100% mortality after 72 h of infection by C. albicans-C. glabrata and 96 h of infection by C. albicans-C. krusei. C. albicans CFU/mL values from larvae hemolymph were lower in the interacting groups compared with the monoespecies group after 12 h of infection. In addition, immunosuppressed mice were also inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic microbial suspensions to induce oral candidiasis. C. albicans CFU/mL values recovered from oral cavity of mice were higher in the group with single infection by C. albicans than the groups with mixed infections by C. albicans-C. glabrata and C. albicans-C. krusei. Moreover, the group with single infection by C. albicans had a higher degree of hyphae and epithelial changes in the tongue dorsum than the groups with mixed infections. We concluded that single infections by C. albicans were more harmful for animal models than mixed infections with non-albicans species, suggesting that C. albicans establish competitive interactions with C. krusei and C. glabrata during biofilm formation and development of experimental candidiasis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tissue degradation has become evident in many diseases and great interest therefore exists in the pharmacological control of the activity of these enzymes. This study evaluated the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the production of MMPs and their inhibitor (TIMP) in monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The human monocytic cell line (THP-1) was treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of CAPE (10 and 60μM) combined with 1μg/mL of LPS. The gene expression of MMP-1, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein secretion into the culture medium was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 by zymography. CAPE, especially at the highest concentration, down-regulated MMP-1 and MMP-9 gene expression but up-regulated the gene expression of TIMP-1. Furthermore, CAPE reduced the secreted protein level of MMP-1 and MMP-9 as well as the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9. CAPE was able to inhibit the gene expression, production and the activity of MMPs induced by LPS and also increased the gene expression of TIMP-1. The present observations suggest that CAPE exerted a positive effect on the regulatory mechanism between MMPs and TIMP, which is important for the control of different diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Archives of Oral Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Repeated sterilizations cycles cause undesirable alterations in the material properties of the instruments, such as corrosion, alterations in the hardness of the metal and the loss of the cutting sharpness of the instrument. This research examined the effect of repeated dry heat sterilization and autoclaves cycles on carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) curettes during the scaling and root planning. A total of 77 Gracey curettes were used in this study. Of these, 35 were SS and 42 were CS curettes submitted in different process: Dry heat, autoclave, inhibition of corrosion and autoclave, scaling, root planning and dry heat, scaling, root planning, inhibition of corrosion and autoclave. The inhibition of corrosion used on the carbon curettes (prior to sterilization in the autoclave) was sodium nitrite at 2%. The curettes received 10 consecutive cycles of sterilization and after that the cutting edges were examined in the electronic microscope, at 60 and 100 magnification times. The images were evaluated by three independent examiners, who compared the photographs of each group with the control group. The surface corrosion products and a deterioration of the edges were observed and the results showed that the SS curettes suffered little alteration with sterilization, scaling, root planning whereas the CS curettes were visibly affected by sterilization in the autoclave, but when the inhibition of corrosion was used prior to the sterilization, the oxidation was considerably reduced.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: With the increasing number of strains of Candida ssp. resistant to antifungal agents, the accomplishment of researches that evaluate the effects of new therapeutic methods, like photodynamic inactivation (PDI), becomes important and necessary. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the effects of the PDI on Candida albicans biofilms, evaluating their effects on the expression of the gene hydrolytic enzymes aspartyl proteinase (SAP5), lipase (LIP9), and phospholipase (PLB2). Clinical strains of C. albicans (n = 9) isolated from patient bearers of the virus HIV and a pattern strain ATCC 18804 were used. The quantification of gene expression was related to the production of hydrolytic enzymes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. For PDI, we used laser-aluminum-gallium arsenide low power (red visible, 660 nm) as a light source and the methylene blue at 300 μM as a photosensitizer. We assessed two experimental groups for each strain: (a) PDI: sensitization with methylene blue and laser irradiation and (b) control: without sensitization with methylene blue and light absence. The PDI decreased gene expression in 60 % of samples for gene SAP5 and 50 % of the samples decreased expression of LIP9 and PLB2. When we compared the expression profile for of each gene between the treated and control group, a decrease in all gene expression was observed, however no statistically significant difference (Tukey's test/p = 0.12). It could be concluded that PDI (photosensitization with methylene blue followed by low-level laser irradiation) showed a slight reduction on the expression of hydrolytic enzymes of C. albicans, without statistical significance.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Lasers in Medical Science
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    ABSTRACT: Dried, fresh and glycolic extracts of Zingiber officinale were obtained to evaluate the action against G. mellonella survival assay against Enterococcus faecalis infection. Eighty larvae were divided into: 1) E. faecalis suspension (control); 2) E. faecalis + fresh extract of Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + dried extract of Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + glycolic extract of Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For control group, a 5 μL inoculum of standardized suspension (107 cells/mL) of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was injected into the last left proleg of each larva. For the treatment groups, after E. faecalis inoculation, the extracts were also injected, but into the last right proleg. The larvae were stored at 37 °C and the number of dead larvae was recorded daily for 168 h (7 days) to analyze the survival curve. The larvae were considered dead when they did not show any movement after touching. E. faecalis infection led to the death of 85% of the larvae after 168 h. Notwithstanding, in treatment groups with association of extracts, there was an increase in the survival rates of 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) and 66% (DEO) of the larvae. In all treatment groups, the larvae exhibited a survival increase with statistically significant difference in relation to control group (p=0.0029). There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups with different extracts (p=0.3859). It may be concluded that the tested extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis infection by increasing the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Brazilian Dental Journal

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus have been studied for their inhibitory effects on Candida albicans. However, few studies have investigated the effect of these strains on biofilm formation, filamentation and C. albicans infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on C. albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. acidophilus on the biofilm formation and on the capacity of C. albicans filamentation. For in vivo study, Galleria mellonella was used as an infection model to evaluate the effects of L. acidophilus on candidiasis by survival analysis, quantification of C. albicans CFU/mL, and histological analysis. The direct effects of L. acidophilus cells on C. albicans, as well as the indirect effects using only a Lactobacillus culture filtrate, were evaluated in both tests. The in vitro results showed that both L. acidophilus cells and filtrate were able to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and filamentation. In the in vivo study, injection of L. acidophilus into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, the number of C. albicans CFU/mL recovered from the larval hemolymph was lower in the group inoculated with L. acidophilus compared to the control group. In conclusion, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibited in vitro biofilm formation by C. albicans and protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Virulence
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The search for alternative therapies for oral candidiasis is a necessity and the use of medicinal plants seems to be one of the promising solutions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on Candida albicans. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of M. alternifolia were determined by the broth microdilution assay. For the in vivo study, twelve immunosuppressed mice with buccal candidiasis received topical applications of M. alternifolia with MBEC. After treatment, yeasts were recovered from the mice and quantified (CFU/mL). Mice were killed for morphologic analysis of the tongue dorsum by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: The MIC of M. alternifolia was 0.195% and the MBEC was 12.5%. Treatment with M. alternifolia achieved a 5.33 log reduction in C. albicans and reduced the microscopic lesions of candidiasis. CONCLUSIONS: M. alternifolia oil at a 12.5% was effective to eradicate a C. albicans biofilm formed in vitro and to reduce yeasts of C. albicans in an immunosuppressed mouse model.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
  • M. Majewski · A.O.C. Jorge · J.C. Junqueira
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy using methylene blue on Candida strains. Were studied: 5 C. albicans, 4 C. tropicalis, 4 C. glabrata 2 C. parapsilosis, 2 C. kefyr, 1 C. stellatoidea, 1 C. krusei and 1 C. lipolytica. Each strain was underwent to four experimental conditions: methylene blue laser (L+P+) irradiation with laser (L+P-), treatment with methylene blue (L-P+), and treatment with saline as control group (L-P-). After treatment of each strain and plating serial dilutions on Sabouraud dextrose agar were performed. The data from colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p <0.05). The results suggest that the groups treated with laser (L+ P+ and L+P-) showed average CFU/ml (Log) lower than without laser treatment groups (L-F- e L-F+). The group with photodynamic therapy (L+P+) showed an average CFU/ml (Log) similar to the group (L+P-). It was concluded that the strains of Candida analyzed were sensitive to laser irradiation of low power in the presence or absence of methylene blue. © 2014, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Revista de Ciencias Farmaceuticas Basica e Aplicada
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Arctium lappa L. extract on Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. In addition, the cytotoxicity of this extract was analyzed on macrophages (RAW 264.7). Design: By broth microdilution method, different concentrations of the extract (250-0.4 mg/mL) were used in order to determine the minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) in planktonic cultures and the most effective concentration was used on biofilms on discs made of acrylic resin. The cytotoxicity A. lappa L. extract MMC was evaluated on RAW 264.7 by MTT assay and the quantification of IL-1β and TNF-α by ELISA. Results: The most effective concentration was 250 mg/mL and also promoted significant reduction (log₁₀) in the biofilms of S. aureus (0.438 ± 0.269), S. epidermidis (0.377 ± 0.298), S. mutans (0.244 ± 0.161) and C. albicans (0.746 ± 0.209). Cell viability was similar to 100%. The production of IL-1β was similar to the control group (p>0.05) and there was inhibition of TNF-α (p<0.01). Conclusions: A. lappa L. extract was microbicidal for all the evaluated strains in planktonic cultures, microbiostatic for biofilms and not cytotoxic to the macrophages.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Archives of Oral Biology

Publication Stats

2k Citations
183.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003-2015
    • University of São Paulo
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2000-2015
    • São Paulo State University
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      • • Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 1996-2015
    • Fatec Sao Jose dos Campos
      São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2010-2012
    • CEP America
      Emeryville, California, United States
  • 2004-2011
    • University of Campinas
      Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2009
    • Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
      • Department of Stomatology
      Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2002-2009
    • Universidade de Taubaté
      • Departamento de Odontologia
      Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil