[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid-beta (Abeta) protofibrils are known intermediates of the in vitro Abeta aggregation process and the protofibrillogenic Arctic mutation (APPE693G) provides clinical support for a pathogenic role of Abeta protofibrils in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To verify their in vivo relevance and to establish a quantitative Abeta protofibril immunoassay, Abeta conformation dependent monoclonal antibodies were generated. One of these antibodies, mAb158 (IgG2a), was used in a sandwich ELISA to specifically detect picomolar concentrations of Abeta protofibrils without interference from Abeta monomers or the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The specificity and biological significance of this ELISA was demonstrated using cell cultures and transgenic mouse models expressing human APP containing the Swedish mutation (APPKN670/671ML), or the Swedish and Arctic mutation in combination. The mAb158 sandwich ELISA analysis revealed presence of Abeta protofibrils in both cell and animal models, proving that Abeta protofibrils are formed not only in vitro, but also in vivo. Furthermore, elevated Abeta protofibril levels in the Arctic-Swedish samples emphasize the usefulness of the Arctic mutation as a model of enhanced protofibril formation. This assay provides a novel tool for investigating the role of Abeta protofibrils in AD and has the potential of becoming an important diagnostic assay.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that a high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we examined the effects of DHA on amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing in cellular models of Alzheimer's disease by analysing levels of different APP fragments, including amyloid-beta (Abeta). DHA administration stimulated non-amyloidogenic APP processing and reduced levels of Abeta, providing a mechanism for the reported beneficial effects of DHA in vivo. However, an increased level of APP intracellular domain was also observed, highlighting the need to increase our knowledge about the relevance of this fragment in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. In conclusion, our results suggest that the proposed protective role of DHA in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis might be mediated by altered APP processing and Abeta production.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · European Journal of Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aggregation of the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide into amyloid plaques is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease neuropathogenesis. We and others have previously demonstrated delayed Abeta aggregation as a consequence of oxidizing a single methionine residue at position 35 (Met-35). Here, we examined the consequences of Met-35 oxidation on the extremely aggregation-prone peptides Abeta1-42 and Abeta1-40Arctic with respect to protofibril and oligomer formation as well as neurotoxicity. Size exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry demonstrated that monomer/dimers prevailed over larger oligomers after oxidizing Met-35, and consequently protofibril formation and aggregation of both Abeta1-42 and Abeta1-40Arctic were delayed. The oxidized peptides completely lacked neurotoxic effects in cortical neuronal cultures under these conditions, in contrast to the neurotoxic properties of the unoxidized peptides. We conclude that oxidation of Met-35 significantly attenuates aggregation of Abeta1-42 and Abeta1-40Arctic, and thereby reduces neurotoxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enrichment of diet and culture media with the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid has been found to reduce the amyloid burden in mice and lower amyloid-beta (Abeta) levels in both mice and cultured cells. However, the direct interaction of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid, with Abeta, and their effect on Abeta aggregation has not been explored in detail. Therefore, we have investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and the saturated fatty acid arachidic acid on monomer oligomerization into protofibrils and protofibril fibrillization into fibrils in vitro, using size exclusion chromatography. The polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid at micellar concentrations stabilized soluble Abeta42 wild-type protofibrils, thereby hindering their conversion to insoluble fibrils. As a consequence, docosahexaenoic acid sustained amyloid-beta-induced toxicity in PC12 cells over time, whereas Abeta without docosahexaenoic acid stabilization resulted in reduced toxicity, as Abeta formed fibrils. Arachidic acid had no effect on Abeta aggregation, and neither of the fatty acids had any protofibril-stabilizing effect on Abeta42 harboring the Arctic mutation (AbetaE22G). Consequently, AbetaArctic-induced toxicity could not be sustained using docosahexaenoic acid. These results provide new insights into the toxicity of different Abeta aggregates and how endogenous lipids can affect Abeta aggregation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Binding partners for the Cdc42 effector CIP4 were identified by the yeast two-hybrid system, as well as by testing potential CIP4-binding proteins in coimmunoprecipitation experiments. One of the CIP4-binding proteins, DAAM1, was characterised in more detail. DAAM1 is a ubiquitously expressed member of the mammalian diaphanous-related formins, which include proteins such as mDia1 and mDia2. DAAM1 was shown to bind to the SH3 domain of CIP4 in vivo. Ectopically expressed DAAM1 localised in dotted pattern at the dorsal side of transfected cells and the protein was accumulated in the proximity to the microtubule organising centre. Moreover, ectopic expression of DAAM1 induced a marked alteration of the cell morphology, seen as rounding up of the cells, the formation of branched protrusions as well as a reduction of stress-fibres in the transfected cells. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that DAAM1 bound to RhoA and Cdc42 in a GTP-dependent manner. Moreover, DAAM1 was found to interact and collaborate with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src in the formation of branched protrusions. Taken together, our data indicate that DAAM1 communicates with Rho GTPases, CIP4 and Src in the regulation of the signalling pathways that co-ordinate the dynamics of the actin filament system.
Preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amyloid beta peptide (A beta) is crucial for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aggregation of monomeric A beta into insoluble amyloid fibrils proceeds through several soluble A beta intermediates, including protofibrils, which are believed to be central in the disease process. The main reason for this is their implication in familial Alzheimer's disease with the Arctic amyloid precursor protein mutation (E693G). This mutation gives rise to early onset Alzheimer's disease, and synthetic A beta 1-40Arctic displays an enhanced rate of protofibril formation in vitro[Nilsberth C, Westlind-Danielsson A, Eckman CB, Condron MM, Axelman K, Forsell C, Stenh C, Luthman J, Teplow DB, Younkin SG, Naslund J & Lannfelt L. (2001) Nat Neurosci4, 887-893]. To increase our understanding of the mechanisms involved in A beta aggregation, especially A beta monomer oligomerization into protofibrils and protofibril fibrillization into fibrils, the kinetics of A beta 1-42wt and A beta 1-42Arctic aggregation were examined under different physiochemical conditions, such as concentration, temperature, ionic strength and pH. We used size exclusion chromatography for this purpose, where monomers are separated from protofibrils, and fibrils are separated from protofibrils in a centrifugation step. The Arctic mutation significantly accelerated both A beta 1-42wt protofibril formation and protofibril fibrillization. In addition, we demonstrated that two distinct chemical processes - monomer oligomerization and protofibril fibrillization - were affected differently by changes in the micro-environment and that the Arctic mutation alters the peptide response to such changes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide levels are widely measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Alzheimer's disease research. Here, we show that oligomerization of Abeta results in underestimated Abeta ELISA levels. The implications are that comprehensive analysis of soluble Abeta requires either sample pretreatment at denaturing conditions or novel conformation-dependent immunoassays. Our findings might be of relevance for many neurodegenerative disorders in which soluble protein aggregates are the main neurotoxic species.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · Annals of Neurology