Andy Fink

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (2)8.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The developing neocortex contains two types of progenitor cells for glutamatergic, pyramidal-projection neurons. The first type, radial glia, produce neurons and glia, divide at the ventricular surface, and express Pax6, a homeodomain transcription factor. The second type, intermediate progenitor cells, are derived from radial glia, produce only neurons, and divide away from the ventricular surface. Here we show that the transition from radial glia to intermediate progenitor cell is associated with upregulation of Tbr2, a T-domain transcription factor, and downregulation of Pax6. Accordingly, Tbr2 expression in progenitor compartments (the subventricular zone and ventricular zone) rises and falls with cortical plate neurogenesis. The subsequent transition from intermediate progenitor cell to postmitotic neuron is marked by downregulation of Tbr2 and upregulation of Tbr1, another T-domain transcription factor. These findings delineate the transcription factor sequence Pax6 --> Tbr2 --> Tbr1 in the differentiation of radial glia --> intermediate progenitor cell --> postmitotic projection neuron. This transcription factor sequence is modified in preplate neurons, in which Tbr2 is transiently coexpressed with Tbr1, and in the direct differentiation pathway from radial glia --> postmitotic projection neuron, in which Tbr2 is expressed briefly or not at all.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Cajal-Retzius cells are reelin-secreting neurons found in the marginal zone of the mammalian cortex during development. Recently, it has been proposed that Cajal-Retzius cells may be generated both early and late in corticogenesis, and may migrate into the cortex from proliferative zones in the subpallium (lateral ganglionic eminence and medial ganglionic eminence) or cortical hem. In the present study, we used reelin as a marker to study the properties of Cajal-Retzius cells, including their likely origins, neurotransmitters, and birthdates. In double labeling experiments, Cajal-Retzius cells (reelin(+)) expressed transcription factors characteristic of pallial neurons (Tbr1 and Emx2), contained high levels of glutamate, were usually calretinin(+), and were born early in corticogenesis, on embryonic days (E)10.5 and E11.5. Tbr1(+) cells in the marginal zone were almost always reelin(+). The first Cajal-Retzius cells (Tbr1(+)/reelin(+)) appeared in the preplate on E10.5. In contrast, interneurons expressed a subpallial transcription factor (Dlx), contained high levels of GABA, were frequently calbindin(+), and were born throughout corticogenesis (from E10.5 to E16.5). Interneurons (Dlx(+)) first appeared in the cortex on E12.5. Our results suggest that the marginal zone contains two main types of neurons: Cajal-Retzius cells derived from the pallium, and migrating interneurons derived from the subpallium.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2003 · Developmental Brain Research