[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the role of the α1b-adrenergic receptor (AR) in glucose homeostasis, we investigated glucose metabolism in knockout mice deficient of this receptor
subtype (α1b-AR-/-). Mutant mice had normal blood glucose and insulin levels, but elevated leptin concentrations in the fed state. During the
transition to fasting, glucose and insulin blood concentrations remained markedly elevated for at least 6 h and returned to
control levels after 24 h whereas leptin levels remained high at all times. Hyperinsulinemia in the post-absorptive phase
was normalized by atropine or methylatropine indicating an elevated parasympathetic activity on the pancreatic β cells, which
was associated with increased levels of hypothalamic NPY mRNA. Euglycemic clamps at both low and high insulin infusion rates
revealed whole body insulin resistance with reduced muscle glycogen synthesis and impaired suppression of endogenous glucose
production at the low insulin infusion rate. The liver glycogen stores were 2-fold higher in the fed state in the α1b-AR-/- compared with control mice, but were mobilized at the same rate during the fed to fast transition or following glucagon injections.
Finally, high fat feeding for one month increased glucose intolerance and body weight in the α1b-AR-/-, but not in control mice. Altogether, our results indicate that in the absence of the α1b-AR the expression of hypotalamic NPY and the parasympathetic nervous activity are both increased resulting in hyperinsulinemia
and insulin resistance as well as favoring obesity and glucose intolerance development during high fat feeding.
Preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat, carbohydrate-free diet (HFD) for 9 mo. Approximately 50% of the mice became obese and diabetic (ObD), approximately 10% lean and diabetic (LD), approximately 10% lean and nondiabetic (LnD), and approximately 30% displayed intermediate phenotype. All of the HFD mice were insulin resistant. In the fasted state, whole body glucose clearance was reduced in ObD mice, unchanged in the LD mice, and increased in the LnD mice compared with the normal-chow mice. Because fasted ObD mice were hyperinsulinemic and the lean mice slightly insulinopenic, there was no correlation between insulin levels and increased glucose utilization. In vivo, tissue glucose uptake assessed by 2-[(14)C]deoxyglucose accumulation was reduced in most muscles in the ObD mice but increased in the LnD mice compared with the values of the control mice. In the LD mice, the glucose uptake rates were reduced in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and total hindlimb but increased in soleus, diaphragm, and heart. When assessed in vitro, glucose utilization rates in the absence and presence of insulin were similar in diaphragm, soleus, and EDL muscles isolated from all groups of mice. Thus, in genetically homogenous mice, HFD feeding lead to different metabolic adaptations. Whereas all of the mice became insulin resistant, this was associated, in obese mice, with decreased glucose clearance and hyperinsulinemia and, in lean mice, with increased glucose clearance in the presence of mild insulinopenia. Therefore, increased glucose clearance in lean mice could not be explained by increased insulin level, indicating that other in vivo mechanisms are triggered to control muscle glucose utilization. These adaptive mechanisms could participate in the protection against development of obesity.
No preview · Article · May 2002 · AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism