Alina Schuller

Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany

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Publications (7)14.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The adhesion of highly activated neutrophils to cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) may contribute to disruption and hyperpermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after cardiac surgery with prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A correlation between CPB duration and neutrophil-mediated BBB damage has not been investigated on the cellular level yet. Therefore, we studied the effects of neutrophils from cardiac surgery patients with CPB time <80 min (group I; n=8) and >80 min (group II; n=8) on the integrity of cultured porcine MVEC. Ex vivo, neutrophils of group II but not of group I significantly degraded the zonula adherens molecule beta-catenin whereas VE-cadherin and occludin were not modified. The transendothelial electric resistance as a measure for the integrity of the endothelial monolayers was reduced over time in both groups. In conclusion, prolonged CPB time entails neutrophil-mediated decrease in MVEC beta-catenin expression, and thus may be an important trigger for BBB disruption.
    No preview · Article · May 2005 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: The underlying mechanisms leading to persistence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the immune privileged retina are not fully understood. This in vitro study was done to evaluate the influence of HCMV-infected retinal glial cells on epithelial barrier functions. Glial cells derived from human eyes were cultured and infected with the clinical HCMV isolate Hi91. Supernatants of mock (GS(mock)) and Hi91 (GS(Hi91)) -infected glial cells were collected at 72 h post inoculation and used for incubation of CaCo-2 cells grown in transwell chambers. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was analyzed as a measure of epithelial integrity. Virus-free GS(Hi91 )but not GS(mock) increased TER from 250 Omega/cm(2) to more than 1,000 Omega/cm(2)within 2 h. Increased TER values were measured up to 48 h (n = 3). No changes in TER were observed when conditioned supernatants from HCMV-infected human foreskin fibroblasts were used. No evidence of GS(Hi91)-induced modification of beta-catenin (zonula adherens) or occludin and ZO-1 (zonula occludens) was found. Our results suggest that HCMV-infected glial cells may support epithelial barrier functions by a yet unknown mechanism. Our findings may help to explain the ocular persistence of HCMV and the maintenance of ocular immune privilege early in infection.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation is associated with neutrophil activation, inflammation, and edema. Endothelial hyperpermeability elicited by the interaction of activated neutrophils and/or cytokines with endothelial cells may be critical in this regard. However, the immune and cellular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Cocultures with human endothelial cells and neutrophils from cardiac surgery patients were used to evaluate the role of beta1 integrin activity and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in neutrophil transendothelial migration and in impairment of the integrity of endothelial cell-to-cell contacts. Blocking of CD29 (heavy chain of beta1 integrins) totally prevented neutrophil adhesion and transendothelial migration. Pretreatment of neutrophils with either a CD29-stimulating monoclonal antibody or the addition of TNF-alpha (0.1-10 U/ml) to the coculture failed to induce transendothelial migration. However, coculture of endothelial cells with CD29-stimulated neutrophils in the presence of 0.1-10 U/ml TNF-alpha strongly induced neutrophil transmigration. CD29/TNF-alpha-mediated transmigration was associated with intracellular redistribution of endothelial beta-catenin. We further showed that CD29/TNF-alpha-mediated effects involved PI3K and tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling via MAPK but were independent of nuclear transcription factor (NF)-kappaB activity. Inhibition of CD29/TNF-alpha might be a therapeutic option to limit endothelial dysfunction following cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Journal of Investigative Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, evidence has been obtained that the Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) inhibitor HOE642 may stabilize endothelial and epithelial barrier function in vivo. However, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Therefore, we studied the influence of HOE642 on the barrier function of the epithelial cell line CaCo2. The phorbolester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was used to induce hyperpermeability of the epithelial layer which was indirectly determined by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Confocal laser scan microscopy (LSM) served to analyze the intracellular localization of adherens and tight junction molecules. In five independent experiments we found that HOE642 increased TER in non-treated CaCo2 cells (control: 350 +/- 28 Omega/cm2; HOE642: 444 +/- 53 Omega/cm2) and prevented PMA-induced barrier dysfunction (PMA: 33 +/- 12 Omega/cm2; PMA plus HOE642: 496 +/- 47 Omega/cm2). LSM showed that HOE642 prevented the PMA-induced disassociation of the zonula adherens molecule beta-catenin from the cell membrane and the decreased expression of the zonula occludens molecule ZO-1. From our data we conclude that HOE642 may prevent stress-induced epithelial dysfunction by stabilization of cell membrane-associated junction molecules.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with aberrant neutrophil activation and potentially severe pathogenic sequelae. This experimental study was done to evaluate a leukocyte inhibition module that rapidly inactivates neutrophils through CD95 stimulation. German landrace pigs (4 groups, each n = 5) underwent cardiac surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass (group I), with cardiopulmonary bypass (group II), with cardiopulmonary bypass plus a leukocyte filter (group III), and with cardiopulmonary bypass plus a leukocyte inhibition module (group IV). The leukocyte filter or leukocyte inhibition module was introduced into the arterial line of the heart-lung machine. Leukocyte counts were decreased by up to 43% in group IV compared with values in group II (P =.023). In group IV, but not in groups I to III, no delay in spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis was observed after annexin V-propidium iodide staining. Late apoptotic (11.7%) or necrotic neutrophils (9.3%) were detected in 2 animals (group IV). Tumor necrosis factor alpha serum levels increased over time in groups I to III (>2-fold) but remained at baseline levels in group IV (P <.05). Interleukin 8-mediated chemotactic neutrophil transmigration activity increased over time in groups I to III but was totally abrogated in group IV at any time point. The perioperative increase of creatine kinase and creatine kinase MB levels was lower in groups III (1.5-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively) and IV (1.2-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively) compared with values in group II (both 1.9-fold). The leukocyte inhibition module downregulated cardiopulmonary bypass-related neutrophil activity and thus might be beneficial in cardiac surgery and other clinical settings with unappreciated neutrophil activation.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with neutrophil activation, inflammation, and consecutive edema. The impairment of endothelial junction molecules, and thus, hyperpermeability elicited by the interaction of activated neutrophils with endothelial cells may be important in this regard. Cocultures with human endothelial cells and neutrophils from 10 cardiac surgery patients with CPB were used to evaluate the role of neutrophils in modifications of the endothelial zonula adherens molecules VE-cadherin and beta-catenin. Laser scan microscopic analyses showed that neutrophils, which were isolated after the beginning of CPB, significantly impaired intracellular redistribution of endothelial beta-catenin with regard to membrane association (p <.0002) and staining pattern (p <.0001). VE-cadherin localization was not found to be significantly modified. Western blots with total cell extracts showed that amounts of beta-catenin did not vary significantly after co-culture with activated neutrophils. Activated neutrophils during cardiac surgery with CPB may induce endothelial dysfunction by impairing beta-catenin localization and thus contribute to endothelial hyperpermeability.
    No preview · Article · May 2004 · Journal of Investigative Surgery
  • José Bitu Moreno · Stefan Margraf · Alina M Schuller · A Simon · A Moritz · M Scholz
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, we showed that the arterial in-line application of the leukocyte inhibition module (LIM) within the heart-lung machine limits overshooting leukocyte activity and cardiac tissue damage. Moreover, significantly better cardiac function was found in an experimental animal model when LIM was used. In the meantime, the first promising clinical data exist. LIM has to be regarded as an essential tool in extracorporeal circulation, in the future, to improve postoperative clinical outcome and to reduce costs. This review summarizes the biological background of LIM and the current experience obtained in experimental models and clinical studies.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Perfusion