[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities would contribute to the accumulation of extracellular matrix during acute kidney allograft rejection. MMP-2 and MMP-9 and other gelatinolytic activities were examined in the rejected graft and the urine of a rat model of acute kidney rejection (orthotopic allotransplantation from a Buffalo donor to a Wistar-Furth recipient) by either zymography or fluorescence assay. MMP-2, membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 were also examined by immunodetection. The proMMP-2 activity and protein level increased in the graft during rejection when compared with normal Buffalo kidney, whereas activated MMP-2 decreased. TIMP-2 protein levels were markedly decreased and MT1-MMP proteolytic fragments (44-40 kDa) were undetectable. This suggests an altered MT1-MMP-dependent processing of proMMP-2 into active MMP-2 due to a diminished TIMP-2 level in acute kidney rejection. In the urine the overall gelatinolytic activity decreased considerably, although activity associated with an as yet unidentified 78-kDa protein appeared 6 days after transplantation.
Full-text · Article · May 2003 · Transplant International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) contributes to brain homeostastis and fulfills a protective function by controlling the access of solutes and toxic substances to the central nervous system (CNS). The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key element of the molecular machinery that confers special permeability properties to the BBB. 2. P-gp, which was initially recognized for its ability to expel anticancer drugs from multidrug-resistant cancer cells, is strongly expressed in brain capillaries. Its expression in the BBB limits the accumulation of many hydrophobic molecules and potentially toxic substances in the brain. 3. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge about the expression of P-gp, its cellular localization as well as its possible functions in the BBB.
No preview · Article · Jul 2002 · Vascular Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant brain tumors and brain metastases present a formidable clinical challenge against which no significant advances have been made over the last decade. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the main factors in the failure of chemotherapy against central nervous system tumors. The MDR1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug efflux pump which plays a significant role in modulating MDR in a wide variety of human cancers, is highly expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB controls central nervous system exposure to many endogenous and exogenous substances. The exact molecular mechanisms by which the BBB is involved in the resistance of brain tumors to chemotherapy remain to be identified. The purpose of this review is to summarize reports demonstrating that P-gp, one of the most phenotypically important markers of the BBB, is present in primary brain tumors and thus plays a crucial role in their clinical resistance to chemotherapy.
Preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Cancer and metastasis reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Administration of the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA) is associated with nephrotoxicity. The main target for CsA, cyclophilin A (CypA), was found in high levels in epithelial cells of renal proximal tubules. In the present study, CypA was immunodetected and characterized following CsA treatment in subcellular fractions of renal cortex.
The renal content and distribution of CypA was evaluated in untreated rats and in rats treated with a subcutaneous injection of CsA (10 mg. kg-1. day-1) for 10 days.
In untreated rats, membrane-bound CypA represents 0.25% of total brush border membrane (BBM) proteins, similar to the proportion found in the soluble fraction. High ionic strength treatment was unable to extract CypA from BBMs, whereas alkaline treatment (Na2CO2, pH 11) and detergent 3 - [(3 - cholamidopropyl) - dimethyl - ammonio] - 1 - propanesulfate (CHAPS) released it from BBMs. These results indicate that CypA is associated with renal BBMs, and that hydrophobic interactions are involved in this association. The CypA distribution was strongly modified in both BBMs and the soluble fraction after CsA treatment, but its affinity for CsA estimated by photoaffinity labeling was unaffected. The CypA expression level decreased by 45% in BBMs, while it increased by 33% in the soluble fraction, compared with control rats. CypA remained associated with the membranes following in vitro incubation of renal BBMs with CsA. However, incubation of CypA with one of its substrates released CypA from renal BBMs.
These experiments suggest that renal BBMs contain a significant amount of CypA and chronic exposure to CsA, and acute exposure to one of CypA substrates may modify its subcellular distribution.
Preview · Article · May 2000 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interaction between P-glycoprotein (P-gp) from membranes isolated from multidrug-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells and cyclosporin A (CsA) analogues and its metabolites was characterized. Screening of these latter as chemosensitizers was performed using three different assays: (i) vinblastine uptake, (ii) photoaffinity labeling by [125I]iodoaryl azidoprazosin, and (iii) P-gp ATPase activity. Oxidation of the hydroxyl group at position I of CsA (200-096), CsG (215-834), or CsD (PSC-833) increased their inhibition of P-gp. CsA analogues (208-032, 208-183) modified at position 11 retained their ability to inhibit P-gp while analogues modified at position 2 (CsC and CsD) lost their efficiency. The inhibitions induced by metabolites of CsA were also compared to those obtained with CsG metabolites. From all the molecules tested, PSC-833 and 280-446 peptolide were the strongest inhibitors. Our results indicate that modifications of CsA analogues at position 1 and 2 are critical for their interaction with P-gp and that CsA metabolites retain a portion of the inhibitory activity of the parent drug.
Preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Biochemistry and Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The binding site of cyclosporin A to P-glycoprotein was characterized by using a multidrug-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line. P-glycoprotein photolabeled with diazirine-cyclosporin A analogue was purified by a two-step process involving continuous elution electrophoresis followed by wheat germ agglutinin-agarose precipitation. The cyclosporin A covalently bound to P-glycoprotein and to subsequent proteolytic fragments was detected by Western blot analysis using a monoclonal antibody against cyclosporin A. Proteolytic digestion of purified P-glycoprotein by V8 generated a major fragment of 15 kDa photolabeled by cyclosporin A, while proteolysis of P-glycoprotein photolabeled by [125I]-iodoaryl azidoprazosin generated a major fragment of 7 kDa. Limited proteolysis of cyclosporin A-photolabeled P-glycoprotein with trypsin indicated that the major binding site for cyclosporin A was in the C-terminal half of the protein. This cyclosporin A binding site was further characterized with chemical agents (N-chlorosuccinimide, cyanogen bromide, and 2-nitro-5-thiocyanobenzoate). These three chemical agents established a proteolytic profile of P-glycoprotein for fragments photolabeled with cyclosporin A and for fragments that contained the C494 and C219 epitopes. The smallest fragments generated by these chemical agents include the transmembrane domains (TMs) 10, 11, and 12 of P-glycoprotein. When the fragments generated by these chemical agents are aligned, the region that binds cyclosporin A is reduced to the 953-1007 residues. These combined results suggest that the major binding site of cyclosporin A occurs between the end of TM 11 and the end of TM 12.