Publications (3)5.91 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Nephrotic syndrome in children is a clinical manifestation of different histopathological subtypes. There is a paucity of recent large studies dealing with the histopathological spectrum from developing countries. A prospective study was performed from January 1990 to December 2000 at our center, involving 600 children (with age of onset up to 16 years) with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). The objectives were: (1) to study the histopathological distribution of different subtypes of INS and (2) to compare the clinical and biochemical parameters at the time of diagnosis of minimal change disease (MCD) with non-MCD subtypes. For the purpose of this study we analyzed only those children with INS who underwent biopsies. The study group included 290 children in which adequate biopsy reports were available. There were 213 males and 77 females. Mean age at onset of INS was 7.9+5.1 years. Facial edema was found in 286 (98.6%), microhematuria in 120 (41.3%), gross hematuria in 7 (2.5%), and hypertension in 77(26.8%) patients. All patients of the study group were seronegative for HBsAg and HIV. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was the most common histopathological subtype, occurring in 110 of 290 children (38%). Other subtypes included MCD in 95 children (32%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) in 44 children (15%), mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in 33 children (11%), membranous glomerulonephritis in 5 children (2%), and diffuse mesangial sclerosis in 3 children (1%). In children under 8 years of age, MCD was the most common entity, whereas FSGS predominated in children with age at onset greater than 8 years. The age at onset of nephrotic syndrome was significantly higher in the non-MCD group than the MCD group. The incidence of hypertension, microhematuria, and gross hematuria was significantly lower in the MCD group. MCD remains the most common histopathological subtype in Indian children with INS and onset under 8 years of age. The incidence of MPGN continues to be high. MCD can be differentiated from non-MCD subtype by younger age at onset, absence of hypertension, and absence of microscopic hematuria.
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ABSTRACT: Cyclosporin A (CsA) withdrawal after 1 yr of stable graft function has been shown to be beneficial in cadaveric renal transplantation. This strategy could be even more suitable for 'immunologically advantaged' grafts as in live related renal transplantation. We report the long-term outcome of patients in a live related transplantation programme undergoing early (between 1989 and 1992) and late (1993 onwards) CsA withdrawal as compared with those on long-term low dose CsA (1993 onwards). Two-hundred and fifty-two patients were divided into three groups based on the following immunosuppressive protocol: group ECyW (n=99), early CsA withdrawal (9 months after transplantation); group LCyW (n=44), late CsA withdrawal (median 16 months, range 13--22 months after transplantation); and group LDCy (n=109), long-term low dose CsA. The median period of follow-up was 66 months after transplantation (range 43--84 months). There was no difference in the actuarial 6-yr patient or graft survival among the three groups. Acute rejection episodes were more frequent in ECyW (54.4%) than in LDCy (31.8%) and LCyW (23.8%) (p=0.001). The risk of developing late (> or =9 months) acute rejection was highest in ECyW 32/99 (32.3%) as compared with LCyW 8/44 (18.4%; p=0.08) and LDCy 8/109 (7.3%; p=0.0001). Of the 32 ECyW patients who developed acute rejection episodes after CsA withdrawal, 13 (40.6%) lost their grafts either due to uncontrolled acute rejection or to chronic rejection. Chronic rejection was higher in ECyW (24%) than in LCyW (11%; p=0.04) and LDCy (17%; p=0.17). Antihypertensive requirement was highest in patients maintained on low dose CsA. Graft function, as measured by serum creatinine levels, was significantly better in LCyW (1.24+/-0.4 mg%) as compared with ECyW (1.49+/-0.5 mg%) and LDCy (1.48+/-0.6 mg%). Early CsA withdrawal after live related renal transplantation is associated with a significant risk of acute rejection and subsequent chronic rejection. Slow withdrawal after 1 yr is safe and more economical than the long-term administration of low dose CsA.
Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India
- • Department of Nephrology
- • Department of Urology