- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The new TAIGA-HiSCORE non-imaging Cherenkov array aims to detect air showers induced by gamma rays above 30 TeV and to study cosmic rays above 100 TeV. TAIGA-HiSCORE is made of integrating air Cherenkov detector stations with a wide field of view (0.6 sr), placed at a distance of about 100 m. They cover an area of initially ∼0.25 km2 (prototype array), and of ∼5 km2 at the final phase of the experiment. Each station includes 4 PMTs with 20 or 25 cm diameter, equipped with light guides shaped as Winstone cones. We describe the design, specifications of the read-out, DAQ and control and monitoring systems of the array. The present 28 detector stations of the TAIGA-HiSCORE engineering setup are in operation since September 2015.
Article: Recent developments in GEANT4[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Geant4 is a software toolkit for the simulation of the passage of particles through matter. It is used by a large number of experiments and projects in a variety of application domains, including high energy physics, astrophysics and space science, medical physics and radiation protection. Over the past several years, major changes have been made to the toolkit in order to accommodate the needs of these user communities, and to efficiently exploit the growth of computing power made available by advances in technology. The adaptation of Geant4 to multithreading, advances in physics, detector modeling and visualization, extensions to the toolkit, including biasing and reverse Monte Carlo, and tools for physics and release validation are discussed here.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present physical motivations and advantages of the new gamma-observatory TAIGA (Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and gamma-ray astronomy). TAIGA will be located in the Tunka valley, 50. km to the west of Lake Baikal, at the same place as the integrating air Cherenkov detector for cosmic rays Tunka-133. The TAIGA array is a complex, hybrid detector for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy for energies from a few TeV to several PeV as well as for cosmic ray studies from 100. TeV to several EeV. The array will consist of a wide angle Cherenkov array - TAIGA-HiSCORE with . 5km2 area, a net of 16 IACT telescopes (with FOV of about 9.72°×9.72°) as well as muon and other detectors. We present the current status of the array construction.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The physical motivations and advantages of the new gamma-observatory TAIGA (Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy) is presented. The TAIGA array is a complex, hybrid detector for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy for energies from a few TeV to several PeV as well as for cosmic ray studies from 100 TeV to several EeV. The TAIGA will include the wide angle Cherenkov array TAIGA-HiSCORE with ~5 km2 area, a net of 16 I ACT telescopes (with FOV of about 10x10 degree), muon detectors with a total area of up to 2000-3000 m2 and the radio array Tunka-Rex.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is assumed that at energies around the knee the nucleus-nucleus interaction is drastically changed due to production of blobs of quark-gluon matter with very large orbital momentum. This approach allows explain all so-called unusual events observed in cosmic rays and gives a new connection between results of EAS investigations and energy spectrum and mass composition of primary cosmic rays. To check this approach, the experiments in cosmic rays and at LHC are proposed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigations of the energy characteristics of muon component with the increase of the primary cosmic rays energy can be a key to solving 'muon puzzle' - the problem of excess of EAS muons (observed in several experiments at high - ALEPH, DELPHI - and ultrahigh energies - DECOR, Pierre Auger Observatory) in comparison with the expected flux. The measurements results of the energy deposit of inclined muon bundles in water depending on the zenith angle and the local density of muons are presented. As a measure of the energy deposit, the total number of photoelectrons registered by PMTs of the Cherenkov water calorimeter NEVOD was used. The local density of muons, which gives an estimate of the energy of primary particles was obtained from the data of coordinate-tracking detector DECOR. The experimental data are compared with the results of calculations based on simulations of the muon component of EAS by means of the CORSIKA code.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The analysis of spatial distribution of Cherenkov light generated by cascade showers in Cherenkov water detector (CWD) NEVOD was performed. Showers generated by nearly horizontal muons were selected. Muons tracks were reconstructed with high precision using the coordinate tracking detector DECOR. For the first time, the dependence of Cherenkov light intensity on the depth of a shower at different distances from its axis was measured.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temporal changes in the intensity of muon bundles produced as a result of interactions of primary cosmic ray particles with energies of the order of 1015 eV and detected at the ground level are analyzed. Seasonal variations, barometric and temperature effects, and correlations with the altitudes of various levels of residual pressure are considered. It is shown that muon bundle intensity variations are well explained in frame of a simple mechanism related with changes of the muon lateral distribution function at the observation level caused by geometrical changes of the effective altitude of the formation of the bundles.
Article: The Taiga project[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TAIGA project is aimed at solving the fundamental problems of gamma-ray astronomy and physics of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with the help of the complex of detectors, located in the Tunka valley (Siberia, Russia). TAIGA includes a wide-angle large area Tunka-HiSCORE array, designed to detect gamma-rays of ultrahigh energies in the range 20 - 1000 TeV and charged cosmic rays with energies of 100 TeV - 100 PeV, large area muon detector to improve the rejection of background EAS protons and nuclei and a network of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for gamma radiation detection. We discuss the goals and objectives of the complex features of each detector and the results obtained in the first stage of the HiSCORE installation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper describes the system of calibration telescopes as a part of the experimental complex NEVOD. The setup operation parameters were analysed during experimental series from 01/06/2013 to 21/01/2015. The technique of the charged particle local density spectrum reconstruction is described. The results of the local density spectrum measurements are presented for the EAS electron and muon components in different energy ranges of primary cosmic rays.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A problem concerning the restoration of the parameters of a cascade shower with an unknown axis originating by muons in a Cherenkov water calorimeter is considered. A method for estimating the direction and geometric position of the cascade’s axis, which is based on the analysis of responses of quasispherical modules, and the criteria of selection of the events with cascades among the events with a large energy liberation are proposed. The method and the criteria are tested on events with cascades generated by near-horizontal muons of high energies detected by a DECOR coordinate-track detector. The preliminary results of measurements of the energy spectrum of cascade showers are presented.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A technique for the reconstruction of cascade profiles by means of Cherenkov radiation in the water of the NEVOD detector is discussed. NEVOD is equipped with a dense spatial lattice of optical modules. The analyzed cascades have been generated either along near-horizontal muons (zenith angles between 85 and 90°), which's tracks are reconstructed by means of the tracking detector DECOR, or by muons with unknown tracks over a wider zenith angle range of 50-90°. Mean cascade profiles and energy spectra of cascades measured during the experimental series of about 7950 hours of 'live time' are presented.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gamma-ray energy regime beyond 10 TeV is crucial for the search for the most energetic Galactic accelerators. The energy spectra of most known gamma-ray emitters only reach up to few 10s of TeV, with 80 TeV from the Crab Nebula being the highest energy so far observed significantly. Uncovering their spectral shape up to few 100 TeV could answer the question whether some of these objects are cosmic ray pevatrons, i.e. Galactic PeV accelerators. Sensitive observations in this energy range and beyond require very large effective detector areas of several 10s to 100 square-km. While imaging air Cherenkov telescopes have proven to be the instruments of choice in the GeV to TeV energy range, very large area telescope arrays are limited by the number of required readout channels per square-km. Alternatively, the shower front sampling technique allows to instrument large effective areas and also naturally provides large viewing angles of the instrument. Solely measuring the shower front light density and timing (hence timing-arrays), the primary particle properties are reconstructed on the basis of the measured lateral density function and the shower front arrival times. This presentation gives an overview of the technique, its goals, and future perspective.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The large-scale coordinate detector for registration of near-horizontal muon flux of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays is being developed in MEPhI. Detector is based on the drift chambers from the neutrino experiment at the IHEP accelerator U-70, their key advantages are the large effective area (1.85 m2), good coordinate and angular resolution with a small number of measuring channels. Detector will be operated as a part of the experimental complex NEVOD, in particular, jointly with Cherenkov water detector with volume of 2000 m3. The current status of the project and results of studies of drift chamber characteristics are discussed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quasispherical Module (QSM) of Cherenkov water detector NEVOD represents six low-noise FEU-200 photomultipliers with flat photocathodes (15 cm in diameter), oriented along the axes of orthogonal coordinate system. Such configuration allows to register Cherenkov radiation arriving from any direction with almost equal efficiency. The results of measurements of QSM characteristics in the sensitive volume of the NEVOD detector during the registration of Cherenkov radiation of single muons at different distances and angles are discussed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Up to several 10s of TeV, Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) have proven to be the instruments of choice for GeV/TeV gamma-ray astronomy due to their good reconstrucion quality and gamma-hadron separation power. However, sensitive observations at and above 100 TeV require very large effective areas (10 km 2 and more), which the current and planned telescopes do not achieve. The alternative to IACTs are shower front sampling arrays (non-imaging technique or timing-arrays) with a large area and a wide field of view. Such experiments provide good core position, energy and angular resolution, but only poor gamma-hadron separation. Combining both experimental approaches, using the strengths of both techniques, could optimize the sensitivity to the highest energies. The TAIGA project plans to combine the non-imaging HiSCORE  array with small ( 10m 2 ) imaging telescopes. This paper covers simulation results of this hybrid approach.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TAIGA stands for " Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy " and is a project to build a complex, hybrid detector system for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy from a few TeV to several PeV, and for cosmic ray studies from 100 TeV to 1 EeV. TAIGA will search for " PeVatrons " (ultra-high energy gamma-ray sources) and measure the composition and spectrum of cosmic rays in the knee region (100 TeV – 10 PeV) with good energy resolution and high statistics. TAIGA will include Tunka-HiSCORE (an array of wide-angle air Cherenkov stations), an array of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, an array of particle detectors, both on the surface and underground, and the TUNKA-133 air Cherenkov array.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new setup for registration of the electromagnetic component of the EAS at the "knee" region of the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays (PCR) is now under construction on the basis of the experimental complex NEVOD-DECOR (Moscow, Russia). The EAS array detecting system has a cluster organization. Clusters are located in the MEPhI campus. The specific features of the array registering system that provides particle detection, data acquisition, cluster synchronization and events selection are discussed. The results of counter characteristics study are also presented.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First results of investigations of the energy deposits of inclined muon bundles in the ground-based Cherenkov water detector NEVOD are presented. As a measure of the muon bundle energy deposit, the total number of photoelectrons detected by PMTs of the Cherenkov calorimeter is used. For each event, the local muon density at the observation point and the muon bundle arrival direction are estimated from the data of the coordinate-tracking detector DECOR. Registration of the bundles in a wide range of zenith angles allows to explore the interval of primary particle energies from ∼ 1016 to ∼ 1018 eV. Measurement results are compared with CORSIKA based simulations of EAS muon component. It is found that the mean energy of muons detected in the bundles rapidly increases with the zenith angle and reaches about 500 GeV near the horizon.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first results from measuring spectra of the local density of charged particles in extensive air showers in the energy range of ∼1014-1015 eV on the SCT setup (part of the NEVOD experimental complex), obtained using two independent methods, are presented. Experimental data are compared to calculations performed using the CORSIKA program.
National Research Nuclear University MEPHIMoskva, Moscow, Russia
Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoskva, Moscow, Russia