A L K Hestvik

Oslo University Hospital, Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway

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Publications (14)86.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the current study is to examine the surface expression of chemokine receptors and the chemotaxis toward the respective chemokines of glatiramer acetate (GA)-specific CD4(+) T cells isolated from the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a multiple sclerosis (MS) patient. Four clones were selected, two isolated from the peripheral blood and two from the CSF. CCR4 and CXCR3 were expressed on all four clones. Both blood-derived clones also expressed CCR5 and, to a lesser extent, CCR6. Similarly, one CSF clone expressed CCR5 and CCR6. In contrast, CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR7, CCR9, CCR10, CXCR1, CXCR4, CXCR5, CXCR6, and CCR6 were either expressed on few cells or were not expressed at all on all four clones examined. The expression of chemokine receptors was corroborated with the ability of the cells to respond chemotactically to the corresponding chemokines, CCL5/RANTES, CCL20/MIP-3α, CCL22/MDC and CXCL10/IP-10. Both the receptor expression and chemotaxis were reduced upon activation with PMA and ionomycin. The shared expression of chemokine receptors and the migration patterns suggest that GA-reactive cells have migrated from the blood into the CSF, and that local reactivation within the inflamed CSF may downregulate the expression of chemokine receptors and hence impede their migration intrathecally. The results may also explain the beneficial synergistic effects of combining immunosuppressive drugs with GA in MS patients.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Human immunology
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    Anne Lise K Hestvik
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between immune responses to self-antigens and autoimmune disease is unclear. In contrast to its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is driven by T cell responses to myelin antigens, the target antigen of the intrathecal immune response in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been identified. Although the immune response in MS contributes significantly to tissue destruction, the action of immunocompetent cells within the central nervous system (CNS) may also hold therapeutic potential. Thus, treatment of MS patients with glatiramer acetate triggers a protective immune response. Here we review the immunopathogenesis of MS and some recent findings on the mechanism of glatiramer acetate (GA).
    Preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Toxins
  • Trygve Holmøy · Frode Vartdal · Anne Lise Hestvik · Ludvig Munthe · Bjarne Bogen
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    ABSTRACT: B cells present idiotopes (Id) from their B cell receptor to Id-specific CD4(+) T cells. Chronic Id-driven T-B cell collaboration can cause autoimmune disease in mice. We propose that Id-driven T-B cell collaboration mediates the development of multiple sclerosis by perpetuating immune responses initiated against infectious agents. During germinal centre reactions, B cells express a multitude of mutated Ids. While most mutations lead to decreased affinity and deletion of the B cell, some B cells could be rescued by Id-specific T cells. Such Id-connected T-B cell pairs might initiate inflammatory foci in the central nervous system. This model may explain the intrathecal synthesis of low-avidity IgG against viruses, and the synthesis of oligoclonal IgG with unknown specificity in multiple sclerosis.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Trends in Immunology
  • T Holmøy · G Skorstad · A L K Hestvik · K M J Alvik · F Vartdal
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    ABSTRACT: The immune system may attack the brain and cause inflammatory disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS). On the other hand, the immune system may protect and support neurons. There are two obstacles to study this paradox in humans. First, the target antigens in many human central nervous system (CNS) disorders are unknown. Second, it is often difficult to separate pathogenic from protective events, as well as primary from secondary phenomena. Idiopathic stiff person syndrome (SPS) circumvents the first obstacle, because most patients secrete antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65. The immune response against glatiramer acetate (GA) may circumvent the second obstacle. Migration of activated T helper cells to the intrathecal compartment could be a common denominator in GA treatment and SPS. We here discuss recent results on T cells in MS and SPS, showing that GAD65-specific and GA-reactive lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid are not a simple reflection of those in blood. The rules and mechanisms governing T cell selection and maintenance in the CNS may provide a key to the understanding of protective and detrimental aspects of CNS immunity.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum
  • Anne Lise Karlsgot Hestvik · Gjertrud Skorstad · Frode Vartdal · Trygve Holmøy
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    ABSTRACT: CD4(+) T cells specific for immunologic non-self determinants on self-IgG, idiotopes (Id), can be raised from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To test if Id-specific CD4(+) T cells have the potential to destroy oligodendrocytes (ODCs), we analyzed their ability to induce apoptosis of human ODC cell lines. Id-specific CD4(+) T cells stimulated with either Id-bearing B cells, Id-peptide presented by other antigen presenting cells, or by anti-CD3/anti-CD28 in the absence of accessory cells induced DNA fragmentation and killed ODCs. Killing required contact between the ODCs and the T cells, it did not depend on the cytokine profile of the T cells, it was independent of other cell types, and was inhibited by a general caspase inhibitor and an anti-Fas antibody. Activated CD4(+) T cells specific for glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 also induced apoptosis, showing that killing does not depend on cognate interaction between T cells and target cells but rather on the activation status of the T cells.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of Autoimmunity
  • Gjertrud Skorstad · Anne Lise K Hestvik · Frode Vartdal · Trygve Holmøy
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    ABSTRACT: Most patients with stiff person syndrome (SPS) display intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal and high-avidity IgG against the 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 IgG), but little is known about the mechanisms driving this immune response. We hypothesized that GAD65-specific T cells accumulating in the central nervous system drive the intrathecal GAD65 IgG production. Accordingly, we were able to clone HLA-DR or DP restricted GAD65-specific T cells from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of all three patients with, but not in one patient without substantial intrathecal production of GAD65 IgG. The CSF T cells recognized four GAD65 epitopes, which were unique to each patient. In two patients, identical or closely related GAD65-specific CSF T cell clones were expanded in vivo. In contrast to the findings in CSF, only one GAD65-specific T cell clone could be raised from the blood of one single patient. Cysteine in amino acid position 474, which is important for enzymatic function of GAD65, was critical for recognition of GAD65(474-484) by HLA-DP restricted CSF T cells. We conclude that GAD65-specific T cells and clonally expanded GAD65-specific B cells coexist intrathecally, where they may collaborate in the synthesis of GAD65 IgG.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Autoimmunity
  • G Skorstad · A L Hestvik · P Torjesen · K Alvik · F Vartdal · B Vandvik · T Holmøy
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent intrathecal production of IgG autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65 IgG) and oligoclonal IgG of undetermined specificity has been reported in stiff person syndrome (SPS). To chart the avidity and clonal patterns of GAD65 IgG, we performed scatchard plot of binding characteristics and isoelectric focusing-immunoblot of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from five SPS patients. Oligoclonal GAD65 IgG bands, predominantly restricted to the IgG1 subclass, were detected in CSF and serum in all patients. The distribution of GAD65-specific IgG bands in serum and CSF revealed intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal GAD65 IgG in all five patients, whilst radioimmunoassay demonstrated intrathecal synthesis of GAD65 IgG in four. The binding avidity of GAD65 IgG from CSF was more than 10 times higher than in serum in two of the patients but did not differ substantially in the remaining three. These differences were not related to symptom severity. The pattern of oligoclonal GAD65 IgG bands in CSF and serum in three patients examined remained unchanged for up to 7 years after symptom debut. This study confirms the persistent systemic and intrathecal production of GAD65-specific IgG in SPS, and further shows that this immune response is oligoclonal and mediated by a stable population of affinity maturated B cell clones.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · European Journal of Neurology
  • A L K Hestvik · G Skorstad · D A Price · F Vartdal · T Holmoy
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    ABSTRACT: Glatiramer acetate (GA) is believed to induce GA-reactive T cells that secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines at the site of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, GA-reactive T cells have not been established from the intrathecal compartment of MS patients, and intrathecal T cells may differ from T cells in blood. Here, we compared the phenotype of GA-reactive T cells from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of five MS patients treated with GA for 3-36 months, and in three of these patients also before treatment. From the CSF of these patients, all 22 T cell lines generated before and all 38 T cell lines generated during treatment were GA-reactive. GA treatment induced a more pronounced anti-inflammatory profile of GA-reactive T cell lines from CSF than from blood. While GA-reactive T cell clones from CSF were restricted by either human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -DR or HLA-DP, only HLA-DR restricted GA-reactive T cell clones were detected in blood. No cross reactivity with myelin proteins was detected in GA-reactive T cell lines or clones from CSF. These results suggest that a selected subset of GA-reactive T cells are present in the intrathecal compartment, and support an anti-inflammatory mechanism of action for GA.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Multiple Sclerosis
  • Trygve Holmøy · Anne Lise K Hestvik
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis is a major cause of neurological disability in Western societies. The most important reason for the limited success obtained in the treatment and prevention so far is most likely related to the limited knowledge about its cause and pathogenesis. This paper discusses recent progress and controversies in the understanding of the pathogenesis and cause of multiple sclerosis. Both T helper cells type 1 (Th1 cells), Th17 cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells and regulatory T cells are involved in the inflammatory process. Axonal loss seems to be driven by inflammation during the early stages of disease but may become independent of inflammation at later stages. The target antigen of the immune response has not been identified. Weak genetic association has been established in two cytokine receptors, whereas increasing female: male ratio support the importance of environmental risk factors. A substantial proportion of intrathecal B cells are infected with Epstein-Barr virus. Multiple sclerosis is a complex disease and calls for integrated efforts from immunology, epidemiology, neuroscience and genetics. In particular, the immunological implications of environmental risk factors such as vitamin D desufficiency, smoking and Epstein-Barr virus infection need to be explored.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: The highly diversified variable regions of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules contain immunogenic determinants denoted idiotopes. We have previously reported that T cells from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients recognize IgG from autologous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and mapped a T-cell epitope to an IgG idiotope. To test the ability of CSF IgG molecules to elicit a broad polyclonal T-cell response in MS, we have analysed T-cell responses in the blood and CSF against idiotope peptides spanning complementarity determining region (CDR) 3 and somatic mutations within the variable regions of monoclonal CSF IgG. Consistent with a diversified idiotope-specific T-cell repertoire, CD4(+) T cells from both patients recognized several idiotope peptides presented by HLA-DR molecules. Mutations were critical for T-cell recognition, as T cells specific for a mutated CDR1 peptide did not recognize corresponding germline-encoded peptides. One T-cell clone recognized both an idiotope peptide and the B-cell clone expressing this idiotope, compatible with endogenous processing and presentation of this idiotope by B cells. These results suggest that mutated CSF IgG from MS patients carry several T-cell epitopes, which could mediate intrathecal IgG production and inflammation in MS through idiotope-driven T-B-cell collaboration.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
  • Trygve Holmoy · Gjertrud Skorstad · Anne Lise K. Hestvik · Frode Vartdal

    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2007
  • T Holmøy · A L K Hestvik · F Vartdal

    No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · European Journal of Neurology
  • Trygve Holmøy · Anne Lise Karlsgot Hestvik · Frode Vartdal

    No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · The Lancet Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Due to somatic recombination and hypermutation, Ig variable heavy (V(H)) and light (V(L)) regions contain unique immunogenic determinants, idiotopes (Id), which can stimulate T cells. To address the relevance of this in a human disease, monoclonal IgG (mAb)-secreting B cell clones were established from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of two patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). HLA-DR-restricted CD4(+) T cell lines and clones from CSF of both patients specifically recognized autologous CSF mAb. The CSF T cell clones produced IFN-gamma; some also produced TNF-alpha, IL-10 and IL-5. V(H) and V(L) on the monoclonal IgG derived from CSF B cells expressed amino acid replacements due to somatic mutations. A T cell epitope was mapped to a V(H) framework region, where an amino acid replacement was critical for the T cell recognition. The finding of Id-specific T cells and Id-bearing B cells in the CSF indicates that they coexist within the diseased organ, and provide a basis for the study of Id-driven T-B cell collaboration in a human autoimmune disease.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · European Journal of Immunology

Publication Stats

141 Citations
86.19 Total Impact Points


  • 2006-2010
    • Oslo University Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
  • 2005-2010
    • University of Oslo
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway