[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has a variety of cognitive enhancing, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative properties. In cocaine-addicted individuals, citicoline has been shown to increase brain dopamine levels and reduce cravings. The effects of this compound on appetite, food cravings, and brain responses to food are unknown.
We compared the effects of treatment with Cognizin citicoline (500 mg/day versus 2,000 mg/day) for 6 weeks on changes in appetite ratings, weight, and cortico-limbic responses to images of high-calorie foods using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
After 6 weeks, there was no significant change in weight status, although significant declines in appetite ratings were observed for the 2,000 mg/day group. The higher dose group also showed significant increases in functional brain responses to food stimuli within the amygdala, insula, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Increased activation in these regions correlated with declines in appetite ratings.
These preliminary findings suggest a potential usefulness of citicoline in modulating appetite, but further research is warranted.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · International Journal of Eating Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormalities in brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during cognitive and emotional tasks have been identified in bipolar disorder patients, in frontal, subcortical and limbic regions. Several studies also indicate that mood state may be differentiated by lateralization of brain activation in fronto-limbic regions. The interpretation of fMRI studies in bipolar disorder is limited by the choice of regions of interest, medication effects, comorbidity, and task performance. These studies suggest that there is a complex alteration in regions important for neural networks underlying cognition and emotional processing in bipolar disorder. However, measuring changes in specific brain regions does not identify how these neural networks are affected. New analytical techniques of fMRI data are needed in order to resolve some of these issues and identify how changes in neural networks relate to cognitive and emotional processing in bipolar disorder.