[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplemental Trp on meat quality, plasma and salivary cortisol, and plasma lactate. Experiment 1 was a preliminary study to measure plasma cortisol concentrations in 4 barrows (50 kg of BW) that were snared for 30 s at time 0 min. Pigs were bled at -60, -30, -15, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Plasma cortisol was near maximum 10 min after the pigs were snared. In Exp. 2, 20 barrows (50 kg of BW) were allotted to a basal corn-soybean meal diet or the basal diet with 0.5% supplemental l-Trp for 5 d. After the 5-d feeding period, pigs were snared for 30 s and bled at -10, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after snaring. Pigs fed the diet with supplemental Trp had a lower (P < 0.01) mean plasma cortisol than pigs fed the basal diet. Plasma lactate also was decreased (P < 0.07) by supplemental Trp. In Exp. 3, the same pigs and treatments were used as in Exp. 2, but 5 pigs were snared and 15 pigs adjacent to those being snared were bled to determine if pigs are stressed when they are adjacent to pigs being snared. For pigs adjacent to snared pigs, the area under the curve (P < 0.06) and mean for plasma cortisol was lower (P < 0.01) in pigs fed Trp relative to those fed the basal diet. In Exp. 4, 90 barrows (initial BW of 106 kg) were allotted to 6 treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. Three diets with Trp (basal diet, basal supplemented with 0.5% Trp for 5 d, or pigs fed the basal diet with a 0.1 g/kg of BW Trp bolus given 2 h before slaughter) were combined with 2 handling methods (minimal and normal handling). Dressing percent, 24-h pH, and 24-h temperature were reduced in the minimally handled pigs (P < 0.10) compared with the normally handled pigs. Pigs fed Trp in the diet relative to those fed the basal diet had increased 45-min temperature, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values, and drip and total losses (P < 0.10). Tryptophan in bolus form decreased 45-min pH in the minimally handled pigs but increased 45-min pH in the normally handled pigs (handling x Trp bolus interaction, P = 0.08). Tryptophan in the diet increased CIE lightness (L*) in minimally handled pigs but decreased CIE L* in the normally handled pigs (handling x Trp diet interaction, P = 06). No other response variables were affected by handling method or Trp. Results indicate that Trp decreases plasma cortisol but has no positive effect on meat quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stress occurs in intensive pig farming when piglets are weaned and mixed. In this study, we investigated whether this stress might be reduced with elevated dietary levels of Trp. The effects of supplemental dietary Trp (5 g/kg of feed, as-fed basis) were tested on the neuroendocrine system, intestinal integrity, behavior, and growth performance in nursery pigs, both before and after mixing. Mixing occurred 5 d after weaning and diet introduction. On d 4, 5, and 6, Trp-fed pigs vs. control pigs showed approximately a 2-fold elevation in plasma Trp concentrations (68 +/- 7 vs. 32 +/- 2 micromol/L; P < 0.001), a 38% increase in hypothalamic serotonin turnover as measured by 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid:5-hydroxytryptamine (P < 0.001), and an 11 to 18% increase (P < 0.05) in the intestinal villus height:crypt depth. Before (d 4) and at (d 5) mixing, saliva but not plasma cortisol concentrations were reduced (P < 0.02) by approximately 2-fold in Trp-fed pigs vs. control pigs. Intestinal paracellular (horseradish peroxidase) and transcellular (fluorescein isothiocyanate) transport of macromolecules were not affected by dietary treatment, but mixing induced a 2-fold reduction (P < 0.05) in transcellular transport. Behavioral responses (lying and standing) at mixing were not affected by dietary treatment, except on d 10 after diet introduction when Trp supplementation induced more lying and less standing (P < 0.02). Average daily gain and ADFI were not different among dietary groups (P > 0.10). In conclusion, supplemental dietary Trp (5 g/kg) to piglets increased hypothalamic serotonergic activity, reduced the salivary cortisol response to mixing, improved intestinal morphology, and reduced physical activity 10 d after diet introduction. Consequently, diets containing high Trp levels improved neuroendocrine components of stress and increased gastrointestinal robustness but did not affect behavioral reactivity in nursery pigs during weaning and mixing.
No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal ratio of tryptophan (Trp):lysine (Lys) relative to the ratio of threonine (Thr):Lys was studied in 288 crossbred (Cambrough 15 x Canabrid) nursery pigs from 7.1 to 15.6 kg BW. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial with three calculated ratios of true digestible Thr:Lys (0.55, 0.60, or 0.65) in combination with three Trp:Lys ratios (0.145, 0.170, or 0.195). Treatments were replicated with eight pens of four pigs each. The experiment lasted 28 day with Phase II (222.6 g CP and 11.9 g true digestible Lys/kg diet, initially 24 day of age and 7.1 kg BW) and Phase III (196.2 g CP and 10.1 kg true digestible Lys/kg diet, initially 38 day of age and 9.8 kg BW) diets each fed for 14 day. Threonine by Trp interactions were observed for average daily gain during each period, and for daily feed intake during Phase III and overall. Generally, Trp addition linearly increased gain and feed intake at a Thr:Lys ratio of 0.60 and 0.65 but not at a Thr:Lys ratio of 0.55. Gain:feed was increased linearly with increasing levels of Trp during both periods. There were no main effects of Thr in either time period or overall. Overall, optimal performance was obtained in pigs fed the true digestible Trp:Lys ratio of 0.195 at Thr:Lys ratios 0.60 or 0.65. These results indicate that Trp:Lys ratios above 0.195 may be needed to maximize performance in diets containing wheat and barley.
No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · J Anim Physiol a Anim Nutr
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five experiments were conducted to determine the true ileal digestible Trp (tidTrp) requirement of growing and finishing pigs fed diets (as-fed basis) containing 0.87% (Exp. 3), 0.70% (Exp. 4), 0.61% (Exp. 5), and 0.52% (Exp. 1 and 2) tidLys during the early-grower, late-grower, early-finisher, and late-finisher periods, respectively. Treatments were replicated with three or four replications, with three or four pigs per replicate pen. Treatment differences were considered significant at P = 0.10. Experiment 1 was conducted with 27 pigs (initial and final BW of 78.3 +/- 0.5 and 109.8 +/- 1.9 kg) to validate whether a corn-feather meal (FM) tidTrp-deficient (0.07%) diet, when supplemented with 0.07% crystalline l-Trp, would result in growth performance and carcass traits similar to a conventional corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diet. Pigs fed the corn-FM diet without Trp supplementation had decreased growth performance and carcass traits, and increased plasma urea N (PUN) concentration. Supplementing the corn-FM diet with Trp resulted in greater ADG and G:F than pigs fed the positive control C-SBM diet. Pigs fed the corn-FM diet had similar carcass traits as pigs fed the C-SBM diet, but loin muscle area was decreased and fat thickness was increased. In Exp. 2, 60 pigs (initial and final BW of 74.6 +/- 0.50 and 104.5 +/- 1.64 kg) were used to estimate the tidTrp requirement of finishing pigs. The levels of tidTrp used in Exp. 2 were 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12, or 0.14% (as-fed basis). Response variables were growth performance, PUN concentrations, and carcass traits and quality. For Exp. 2, the average of the estimates calculated by broken-line regression was 0.104% tidTrp. In Exp. 3, 4, and 5, barrows (n = 60, 60, or 80, respectively) were allotted to five dietary treatments supplemented with crystalline l-Trp at increments of 0.02%. The basal diets contained 0.13, 0.09, and 0.07% tidTrp (as-fed basis) in Exp. 3, 4, and 5, and initial BW of the pigs in these experiments were 30.9 +/- 0.7, 51.3 +/- 1.1, and 69.4 +/- 3.0 kg, respectively. The response variable was PUN, and the basal diet used in Exp. 3 and 4 contained corn, SBM, and Canadian field peas. The tidTrp requirements were estimated to be 0.167% for pigs weighing 30.9 kg, 0.134% for pigs weighing 51.3 kg, and 0.096% for pigs weighing 69.4 kg. Based on our data and a summary of the cited literature, we suggest the following total Trp and tidTrp requirement estimates (as-fed basis): 30-kg pigs, 0.21 and 0.18%; 50-kg pigs, 0.17 and 0.14%; 70-kg pigs, 0.13 and 0.11%; and in 90-kg pigs, 0.13 and 0.11%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary Cr propionate (CrProp) on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality of crossbred finishing gilts. Dietary treatments were 0 or 200 ppb Cr (as CrProp; as-fed basis), and each treatment was replicated four times with five gilts per replicate pen. Gilts were fed diets containing 0.82% lysine from 73 to 80 kg BW and 0.64% lysine from 80 to 115 kg BW. At the end of the trial, carcass and pork quality data were collected from four gilts per replicate. Average daily gain, ADFI, and G:F were not affected (P = 0.76 to 0.96) by CrProp. Before delivery at the abattoir, shrink loss was determined after an 18-h fast (fasting shrink) and after hauling (shipping shrink) pigs for 2.66 h (209.2 km). Fasting, shipping, and overall shrink were not affected (P = 0.14 to 0.39) by CrProp. Carcass length was increased (P = 0.03) in pigs fed CrProp. Loin muscle area, 10th-rib backfat thickness, average backfat thickness, dressing percent, muscle score, fat-free lean, and percent lean were not affected (P = 0.18 to 0.95) by CrProp. Twenty-four-hour loin pH was increased (P = 0.10) in pigs fed CrProp, but 45-min loin and ham pH and 24-h ham pH were not affected (P = 0.39 to 0.83) by CrProp. Subjective (color, marbling, firmness, and wetness) and objective (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*, a*, b*) assessments of the loin muscle (at the 10th-rib interface) were not affected (P = 0.62 to 0.99) by CrProp. Forty-eight-hour drip (P = 0.10) and 21-d purge loss (P = 0.01) were decreased in pigs fed CrProp, but cook and total loss (drip + cook loss) and shear force were not affected (P = 0.35 to 0.53) by CrProp. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate concentrations were not affected (P = 0.28 to 0.97) by CrProp after transportation or during exsanguination. These data indicate that CrProp may improve some aspects of pork quality (loin pH, drip and purge loss) but not growth performance or carcass traits.
No preview · Article · May 2005 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five experiments were conducted to determine the true digestible Trp (dTrp) requirement of nursery pigs. Treatments were replicated with four or five pens of five or six pigs each. Pigs were weaned at 21 (Exp. 1, 2, and 5) or 19 d (Exp. 3 and 4), and fed common diets for various times and then experimental diets for 8 (Exp. 1), 13 (Exp. 2 and 3), or 14 d (Exp. 4 and 5). Experiment 1 (160 pigs, initial and final BW of 8.4 and 11.4 kg) evaluated six protein sources low in Trp relative to a positive control diet to identify the protein source to be used in subsequent experiments. The results indicated that a diet with Canadian field peas (CFP) supplemented with Trp resulted in ADG, ADFI, and gain:feed (GF) equal to (P > 0.10) the positive control diet. In Exp. 2, 75 pigs (initial and final BW of 13.2 and 19.2 kg) were fed 1) Trp-deficient diet (0.13% dTrp) with CFP, 2) Diet 1 with added Trp (0.23% dTrp), or 3) positive control diet (0.22% dTrp). Daily gain, ADFI, and GF were decreased (P < 0.01) in pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed Diets 2 and 3, but ADG, ADFI, and GF were equal (P > 0.10) in pigs fed Diets 2 and 3. Experiments 3 (180 pigs, initial and final BW of 5.2 and 7.3 kg), 4 (120 pigs, initial and final BW of 6.3 and 10.2 kg), and 5 (144 pigs, initial and final BW of 10.3 and 15.7 kg) were conducted to estimate the dTrp requirement of nursery pigs with diets using CFP as a primary protein source. The diets used in Exp. 3, 4, and 5 contained 1.35, 1.19, or 1.01% dLys, respectively, and other amino acids were provided at 105% the ratio relative to Lys. Response variables were ADG, ADFI, GF, and plasma urea N concentrations, and data were analyzed using the broken-line model. The levels of dTrp in the diets for Exp. 3 (Phase I, 5.2 to 7.3 kg) were 0.14, 0.17, 0.20, 0.23, 0.26, and 0.29%. The average dTrp requirement was estimated to be 0.21% (0.24% total Trp). The levels of dTrp in the diets for Exp. 4 (Phase II, 6.3 to 10.2 kg) were 0.13, 0.16, 0.19, 0.22, 0.25, and 0.28%. The average dTrp requirement was estimated to be 0.20% (0.23% total Trp). The levels of dTrp in the diets for Exp. 5 (Phase III, 10.3 to 15.7 kg) were 0.130, 0.155, 0.180, 0.205, 0.230, and 0.255%. The average dTrp requirement was estimated to be 0.18% (0.22% total Trp). These results indicate that the true dTrp requirement is 0.21, 0.20, and 0.18% for Phase I (5.2 to 7.3 kg), II (6.3 to 10.2 kg), and III (10.3 to 15.7 kg) nursery pigs, respectively.
No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) and creatine monohydrate on growth performance and plasma metabolites of nursery pigs. In each experiment, treatments were replicated with four to five pens of four to six pigs each. Each experiment lasted from 3 to 4 wk and Phase I (1.6% Lys) and Phase II (1.3 to 1.5% Lys) diets were fed for 9 to 16 d each. In Exp. 1, pigs (4.7 kg and 15 d of age) were fed diets containing 0, .10, or .75% OKG. Daily gain during a 13-d Phase I period and ADFI during Phase I and overall (29 d) were increased (P < .10) in pigs fed .75% OKG. Gain:feed ratio was not affected (P > .10) by diet. In Exp. 2, pigs (7.1 kg and 23 d of age) were fed 0 or .50% OKG during Phase I only. During Phase I, II, and overall, ADG and ADFI were not affected (P > .10) by OKG supplementation, but gain:feed was decreased during Phase I (P < .04), Phase II (P < .08), and overall (P < .04). Plasma urea N (PUN), glucose, and NEFA concentrations were not affected (P > .10) by OKG supplementation in this experiment. In Exp. 3, pigs (5.8 kg and 20 d of age) were fed diets containing 0, .10, or .50% creatine. Creatine tended to linearly decrease ADG (P = .11) and plasma albumin (P = .12) and PUN (P < .10) concentrations in Phase II (d 12 to 26). In Exp. 4, 850 mg of OKG or 750 mg of creatine was provided daily by oral capsule to pigs 4 d before weaning to 2 d after weaning. Pigs within a litter received either no capsule or capsules containing OKG or creatine. After weaning, pigs that received no capsule before weaning received no treatment, .50% creatine, or .50% OKG in the nursery diet. Pigs that received OKG before weaning received no treatment or .50% OKG, and pigs that received creatine before weaning received no treatment or .50% creatine in the nursery diet. Pigs weighed 3.9 kg 4 d before weaning and 4.9 kg at weaning at an average age of 20 d. The OKG provided by capsule decreased ADG (P < .02) and ADFI (P < .09) during Phase II. The OKG did not affect (P > .10) plasma NEFA, glucose, or urea N concentrations. Creatine added to the nursery diet increased (P < .02) ADFI and decreased (P < .10) gain:feed during Phase II and overall. Creatine in the nursery diet also increased (P < .01) PUN, but it did not affect plasma glucose or NEFA concentrations. Creatine and OKG have variable effects on growth performance and plasma metabolites of nursery pigs.
Preview · Article · May 2000 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of an enzymatically digested animal protein (EDAP) as a source of protein for weanling pigs. In each experiment, treatments were replicated with four (Experiments 1 and 2) or seven (Experiment 3) pens of three to five pigs each. Each experiment lasted 3 to 4 wk for the combined Phase I (1.5% Lys in Experiments 1 and 2, 1.6% Lys in Experiment 3) and Phase II (1.3% Lys) periods. In Experiments 1 (6.7 kg; 23 d of age) and 2 (6.1 kg; 22 d of age), pigs were fed one of the following Phase I diets: 1) basal (B) diet containing corn, soybean meal (SBM), whey, fish meal, and blood cells (AP-301 G; American Protein Corporation, Ames, IA); 2) B + 4% spray-dried animal plasma (SDAP); or 3) B + 2% SDAP + 2% EDAP (SDAP + EDAP). In Phase II, the dietary groups from Phase I were divided into two subsequent groups. One group received a diet containing corn, SBM, whey, fish meal, and 2% blood cells, and the second group received the same diet with 2% EDAP, resulting in six treatments for Phase II and overall periods. In Experiment 1, ADG and ADFI were increased (P<0.10) during Phase I for pigs fed SDAP + EDAP, and ADFI was increased (P<0.10) in pigs fed SDAP. In Phase II, the EDAP addition did not affect (P>0.10) ADG, ADFI, or the ratio of gain to feed. Also, Phase I diets did not affect (P>0.10) growth performance during Phase II. Overall, ADG (P<0.10) and ADFI (P<0.04) were increased (P<0.10) in pigs fed SDAP + EDAP during Phase I. In Experiment 2, ADG and the ratio of gain to feed were increased (P<0.10) in pigs fed SDAP + EDAP during Phase I. During Phase II, ADFI was increased in pigs fed SDAP + EDAP or B + SDAP (P<0.01) relative to those fed B only (P<0.003) in Phase I. Also in Phase II, the ratio of gain to feed was increased in pigs fed SDAP + EDAP (P<0.03) relative to those fed B + SDAP. Overall, ADG and the ratio of gain to feed were not affected (P>0.10) by diet, but ADFI was increased (P<0.03) in pigs fed SDAP + EDAP relative to those fed B. In Experiment 3, all pigs (5.7 kg; 17 d of age) were fed a common Phase I diet containing SDAP + EDAP. In Phase II, ADG, ADFI, and the ratio of gain to feed were not affected (P>0.10) by the addition of 2% EDAP or 2% blood cells. In summary, pigs fed SDAP + EDAP perform equally well compared with those fed B + SDAP.
No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · The Professional Animal Scientist