Łukasz Grześkowiak

University of Turku, Turku, Southwest Finland, Finland

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Publications (10)18.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Gut colonisation with bifidobacteria in early infancy is essential for the well-being of the infant. Gestational age and mode of delivery are among the factors influencing the colonisation process. The aim was to characterise the bifidobacterial composition in the gut of one-month-old full-term and pre-term Brazilian infants, both being delivered vaginally or by caesarean section. Fourty nine Brazilian (Viçosa, Minas Gerais state) one-month-old infants were divided in two groups: full-term (n = 24) and pre-term (n = 25), and compared to each other. Each group was then characterised according to its mode of delivery. Infant stool samples were available for bifidobacterial characterisation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. All study infants were colonised by bifidobacteria. Bifidobacterium longum colonised all full-term and pre-term newborns. Differences were observed in counts of Bifidobacterium genus and Bifidobacterium longum between full-term and pre-term infants (8.8 log cells/g, IQR 7.9-9.1 vs. 7.1 log cells/g, IQR 6.6-8.6, p = 0.02 and 8.3 log cells/g, IQR 6.7-9.1 vs. 6.4 log cells/g, IQR 6.1-6.7, p = 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, the prevalence of Bifidobacterium lactis differed between pre-term caesarean and pre-term vaginally born infants (50.0% vs. 93.8%, p = 0.023). Gut bifidobacterial composition of one-month-old full-term infants differs from that of pre-term newborns in Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Gestational age is a factor influencing bacterial numbers and species, while mode of delivery have an impact on the prevalence and quantity of bifidobacteria in studied infants. Bifidobacteria may have an impact on later health of the infants and the species B. longum and B. lactis might provide clues on the potential probiotic applications in pre-term newborns at the risk of developing postnatal complications.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Anaerobe
  • Łukasz Grześkowiak · Akihito Endo · Shea Beasley · Seppo Salminen
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    ABSTRACT: Dogs and cats have been cohabiting with us for thousands of years. They are the major human companions. Today, dogs and cats live in urban areas. Cats and most dogs are on high carbohydrate diets and face similar life-style challenges as the human beings. The health and well-being of companion animals, just as their owners, depends on the gut microbes. Providing a proper care and nutritionally balanced diet to companion animals is recognised as a part of our responsibility to maintain the health and wellbeing of our pet. However, as microbiota differences may facilitate exposure to pathogens and harmful environmental influences, it is prudent to search for novel tools to protect dogs and cats and at the same time the human owners from pathogens. Specific probiotic strains and/or their defined combinations may be useful in the canine and feline nutrition, therapy, and care. Probiotic supplementations have been successful in the prevention and treatment of acute gastroenteritis, treatment of IBD, and prevention of allergy in companion animals. New challenges for probiotic applications include maintenance of obesity and overweight, urogenital tract infections, Helicobacter gastritis and parasitic infections. The probiotics of human origin appear to be among the new promising tools for the maintenance of pets' health. However, the host-derived microorganisms might be the most appropriate probiotic source. Therefore, more controlled trials are needed to characterise new and safe probiotic preparations with an impact on general health and well being as well as health maintenance in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Anaerobe
  • M.C. Collado · ł. Grześkowiak · S. Salminen

    No preview · Article · Jan 2013
  • Łukasz Grześkowiak · Maria Carmen Collado · Seppo Salminen
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial aggregation is related to cell-to-cell adherence between bacteria of the same or different strains. This phenomenon is known to have an important role in microbial interactions and in aquaculture.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the aggregation properties of bacterial candidates for fish probiotics and to assess these properties in viable and non-viable forms with fish bacterial pathogens.The microorganisms Leuconostoc citreum and Enterococcus durans in viable and non-viable forms were evaluated with fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio anguillarum.L. citreum showed higher auto-aggregation properties in non-viable vs. viable form (P = 0.005). The co-aggregation percentage of viable L. citreum + A. hydrophila differed from those of L. citreum + E. tarda, and L. citreum + V. anguillarum (P = 0.033, P = 0.013, respectively). The co-aggregation abilities with A. salmonicida and E. tarda were higher with non-viable than viable cells of this microorganism (P = 0.023 and P = 0.020, respectively). Non-viable form of E. durans co-aggregated at different percentage with A. hydrophila compared to A. salmonicida and to E. tarda (P = 0.023, P = 0.030, respectively).The results suggest that the ability to auto- and co-aggregate with pathogens can be a useful tool for preliminary screening in order to identify potential probiotic bacteria suitable for use in aquaculture.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Aquaculture
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    ABSTRACT: Specific probiotic combinations during early feeding, via the mother or incorporated in early formula-feeding, mold the intestinal microbiota composition in infants. The objective was to analyze the impact of probiotic administration to mother or infant on gut microbiota composition in 6-month-old Finnish and German infants. In Finland probiotics were given to mothers (n = 79) for 2 months prior to and 2 months after delivery. In Germany probiotics were started in infants (n = 81) at weaning, at the latest at 1 month of age, and continued for 4 months. A breast-fed group of 6-month-old infants (22 from Finland, 8 from Germany) were compared. Gut microbiota were analyzed by FCM-FISH and qPCR methods. In breast-fed infants a trend toward higher counts of bifidobacteria was detected in Finland (p = 0.097) as against Germany, where a more diverse microbiota was reflected in higher Akkermansia (p = 0.003), Clostridium histolyticum (p = 0.035) and Bacteroides-Prevotella (p = 0.027) levels and a higher percentage of Akkermansia (p = 0.004). Finnish LPR + BL999 intervention group (Lactobacillus rhamnosus LPR and Bifidobacterium longum BL999) had higher percentages of fecal Lactobacillus-Enterococcus (9.0% vs. 6.1% placebo, p = 0.003) and lower bifidobacteria levels (10.03 log cells/g vs. 10.68 log cells/g placebo, p = 0.018). Probiotic treatment had different impacts on gut microbiota composition in Finnish and German infants due to differences in mode of feeding and the early commensal microbiota. Probiotic treatment had different impacts on gut microbiota composition in Finnish and German infants due to differences in mode of feeding and the basic commensal microbiota.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Anaerobe
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    ABSTRACT: The intestinal microbiota composition in infants reflects the early environment. Our objective was to compare the gut microbiota in 6-month-old infants living in rural Malawi with children of the same age living in urban Finland, both being breast-fed and having an age-appropriate diet typical for each area. Malawian 6-month-old infants (n=44) were compared with Finnish infants (n=31) of the same age. In both cohorts, infant stool samples were available for microbiota characterization by flow cytometry-fluorescent in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Bifidobacteria were dominant at 6 months of age in all of the infants, although in greater proportions in Malawian (70.8%) than in Finnish infants (46.8%; P<0.001). Additional distinctions in bacterial group composition comprised Bacteroides-Prevotella (17.2% vs 4.7%; P<0.001) and Clostridium histolyticum (4.4% vs 2.8%; P=0.01), respectively. The species Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus were absent in Malawian but detected in Finnish infants. The gut microbiota of 6-month-old infants in a low-income country differs significantly from that in a high-income country. This may have an effect on both the energy harvest from the diet typifying malnutrition and diarrheal diseases in low-income countries and Western lifestyle diseases in high-income countries.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
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    Minna-Maija Grönlund · Łukasz Grześkowiak · Erika Isolauri · Seppo Salminen
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    ABSTRACT: The aim here was to elucidate the mother-infant association in the gut colonization of 1-6 month-old infants and to establish whether probiotics can influence this process. Fecal samples from 80 mother-infant pairs were analyzed at 1 month (mothers and infants) and 6 months (infants) by real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess bacterial numbers. This double-blind placebo-controlled trial involved 2 different probiotic combinations (1. Lactobacillus rhamnosus + Bifidobacterium longum and 2. Lactobacillus paracasei + Bifidobacterium longum) given to the mothers 2 months prior to and 2 months after delivery. Bifidobacterium bifidum colonization in the mothers significantly increased the infants' probability of being colonized by B. bifidum and their bifidobacterial diversity indexes (DI) and the mother-infant similarity indexes (SI) both at 1 and 6 months of age. The counts of Bifidobacterium genus (at 1 month) and Bifidobacterium longum (at 6 months) correlated between mothers and infants. At 6 months, a significant effect of the probiotic intervention was found in the mother-infant association of fecal bifidobacterial counts but not in the colonization frequencies, DI or SI. In conclusion, a clear association between mother and infant was found in gut colonization by bifidobacteria. Maternal colonization by B. bifidum had the most consistent effects on the infant's bifidobacterial microbiota. Maternal probiotic treatment had little effect on this mother-infant association.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Gut Microbes
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    ABSTRACT: Adhesion to the host mucus represents the first crucial step in most infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. To characterize this phenomenon, the adhesion of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio anguillarum to mucus from different parts of three fish species was analyzed. Furthermore, the adherence of two commensal bacteria isolated from fish, Leuconostoc citreum and Enterococcus durans was assessed. To determine whether the observed bacterial adhesion to fish mucus was caused by non-specific interactions, adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA), gelatin and polystyrene was also tested. Our results demonstrated that non-specific adhesion such as hydrophobic interactions are only partially involved in the binding process since adhesion to BSA was low, and there was no correlation between adhesion to polystyrene and adhesion to fish mucus.These results indicate the need for a case-by-case assessment in order to select strains with the further ability to inhibit or displace specific pathogens. Specific probiotics selected for further pathogen exclusion could be useful tools to reduce and/or to prevent common fish infections.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Aquaculture
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    Łukasz Grześkowiak · Erika Isolauri · Seppo Salminen · Miguel Gueimonde
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    ABSTRACT: Production and manufacturing methods and the food carrier may influence the properties of probiotic strains, and have an impact on the outcome of clinical intervention studies. The aim of the present study was to establish whether the properties of a specific probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, may differ depending on the product and source of the strain. In total, fifteen different L. rhamnosus isolates, among them fourteen labelled as L. rhamnosus GG, were isolated from specific probiotic products. The micro-organisms were phenotypically and genotypically characterised. Their adhesion properties were compared using the human intestinal mucus model, and the ability of the isolates to influence model pathogen adhesion to human colonic mucus was assessed. All L. rhamnosus isolates used were confirmed as members of the species L. rhamnosus. Except the reference strain OL, all L. rhamnosus isolates showed randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103). All L. rhamnosus isolates showed similar tolerance to acid and were able to bind to human colonic mucus. However, pathogen exclusion by inhibition and competition varied significantly among the different L. rhamnosus isolates and pathogens tested. The results suggest that different sources of the same probiotic may have significantly altered strain properties. This should be considered in in vivo studies on human subjects and also for quality control of probiotic products.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · The British journal of nutrition
  • M C Collado · Łukasz Grześkowiak · Seppo Salminen
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the protective effect of commercial probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG) alone and in combination on the adhesion of pathogenic strains as Salmonella, Clostridium, and Escherichia coli to pig intestinal mucus obtained from different intestinal regions. In combination, probiotic strains enhanced each other's adhesion, mainly in large intestinal mucus. Treatment of intestinal mucus with Bb12 and LGG, alone or in combination, significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the adhesion of the tested pathogens. The ability to inhibit pathogen adhesion appears to depend on the specific probiotics and pathogens and on the mucosal site. B. lactis Bb12 and L. rhamnosus LGG in combination revealed a better ability to inhibit adhesion of all pathogens tested to pig intestinal mucus than probiotic strains. Probiotic combinations could be useful for counteracting disease-associated aberrations in intestinal microbiota. Specific protective probiotics could be selected for particular pig pathogens. Probiotic strains from human origin and intended for human use also adhere to pig intestinal mucus and are able to displace and inhibit pathogens.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Current Microbiology

Publication Stats

213 Citations
18.69 Total Impact Points


  • 2007-2015
    • University of Turku
      • Functional Foods Forum
      Turku, Southwest Finland, Finland
  • 2011
    • Turku University Hospital
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Turku, Western Finland, Finland