Yoo Suk Kim

Ajou University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (22)

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    Full-text Conference Paper · Apr 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background In primary care and epidemiological studies of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), symptom-based diagnosis is common, yet limited, because endoscopic and radiological signs are not considered. Objectives To evaluate the correlation between symptoms and objective findings of CRS to improve its symptom-based diagnosis for primary care and epidemiological studies by using data from a large-scale nationwide epidemiological study, the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data from 2008 to 2012 KNHANES. Participants 29 225 Adults aged >19 years. Outcome measures Questionnaires targeted two major (nasal blockage and anterior/posterior nasal drip) and two minor (facial pain/pressure and reduction or loss of smell) symptoms. Nasal polyps or mucopurulent discharge from the middle meatus was defined as positive endoscopic findings for diagnosing CRS. Results Of the four symptoms, reduction or loss of smell was the symptom most significantly related to positive endoscopic findings in multivariable analysis (OR=1.936 (95% CI 1.604 to 2.337)). The combinations of symptoms showed higher ORs than individual symptoms and combinations of reduction or loss of smell with other symptoms were statistically more reliable for positive endoscopic findings than other combinations. Conclusions Our results show that reduction or loss of smell was the symptom most significantly related to positive nasal endoscopic findings. Therefore, symptom-based diagnosis of CRS can be improved by considering reduction or loss of smell as an important symptom for positive endoscopic findings of CRS.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2015 · BMJ Open
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) surgery on long-term (5-year) subjective outcomes, including sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms and other complications, in patients with OSA. Methods: We enrolled patients who underwent diagnostic polysomnography for OSA between January 2006 and December 2006 in ten hospitals. Patients either were treated for OSA or were not treated for OSA. All patients completed a brief telephone survey regarding their SDB signs and symptoms (e.g., snoring, apnea, nocturnal arousals, and daytime sleepiness), positive airway pressure (PAP) compliance, and any adverse effects of either the surgery or PAP. A positive subjective outcome for either surgery or no treatment was taken to be the alleviation of apnea, defined as a ≥50% increase in score. A positive subjective outcome (compliance) for PAP was defined as a PAP usage of ≥4 hours per night and ≥5 days per week. Results: A total of 229 patients were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups: a surgery group (n=87), a PAP group (n=68), and a control (untreated) group (n=74). The surgery group exhibited significant improvement in all SDB symptoms compared with the control group. The long-term subjective outcomes of the surgery (52.9%) and PAP (54.4%) groups were significantly better than those of the control group (25.0%). The subjective outcome of the surgery group was not significantly different from that of the PAP group. The overall surgical complication rate was 23.0% (20 of 87) in the surgery group, and 55.0% (22 of 40) of all patients with PAP experienced adverse effects. Conclusion: The extent of SDB symptoms was consistently improved in patients with OSA at 5 years postsurgery. Information about the potential long-term subjective outcomes should be provided to patients when considering surgery.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2015 · Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
  • Do Yang Park · Yoo Suk Kim · Jeong Hong Kim · Ju Wan Kang
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The skin-prick test is the most commonly used method to diagnose allergy. In addition, histamine skin reactivity is used as a positive control for the skin-prick test. However, there is individual variation in histamine skin reactivity. The factors that influence individual variation in histamine skin reactivity remain unknown. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the factors associated with histamine skin reaction. Methods: Ninety-seven subjects who underwent a skin-prick test to diagnose allergic rhinitis were enrolled in this study. The skin-prick test was performed with six common allergens. The wheal size of the histamine skin reaction was analyzed; other variables included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), atopy, smoking history, and the testing season. Results: The wheal size in the histamine skin test was significantly associated with age and BMI. The association between histamine skin reactivity and BMI was also present in multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, sex, atopy, smoking history, and season. Conclusion: Histamine skin reactivity increased with BMI (degree of obesity). This association should be considered for better interpretation of the skin-prick test. Further studies regarding the mechanism for this association are needed.
    Article · Nov 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results of the present investigation suggest that modification of HA could improve efficiency and durability in augmentation laryngoplasty. Injection laryngoplasty (IL) is one of the most suitable options for treatment of glottic insufficiency, which is caused by vocal fold (VF) paralysis, atrophy, or scarring. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a widely used material for VF injection. This study was intended to evaluate the durability and efficiency of HA of different particle sizes for VF augmentation. Three types of HA, Restylane®, monophasic low-viscosity, and unequal particle-sized middle-viscosity HA were injected into the left VF of three groups with eight rabbits each. After 6 and 10 weeks, the injected site was evaluated endoscopically, histologically, radiologically, and functionally. None of the 24 rabbits showed any signs of respiratory distress. Computed tomography (CT) images and endoscopic evaluation revealed sufficient augmented volume of the injected VF in all treated groups 6 weeks after the injection. Histological data at week 10 showed that unequal particle-sized HA did not migrate from its original injection site, while other HAs migrated to the periphery of the arytenoid cartilage. Videokymographic analysis showed more favorable vibrations of unequal particle-sized HA injected VF mucosa 10 weeks post-injection, compared to the other treatment groups.
    Article · Aug 2015 · Acta oto-laryngologica
  • Yoo Suk Kim · Sung Yul Kim · Do Yang Park · [...] · Hyun Jun Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disease with the prevalence of approximately 10% in general population, and this disease entity is considered to be highly related with the development of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. In the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, maintaining the homeostasis of autonomic nervous system (ANS) is critical. To evaluate the homeostasis of ANS, heart rate variability (HRV) is commonly used. The object of this study was to evaluate the homeostasis of ANS using the parameters of HRV and to elucidate the correlation between the parameters and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Retrospective review of 806 patients was performed and 164 patients who were diagnosed as having OSAS by in-room polysomnography and met the criteria of age, sex, and body mass index were enrolled. The calculation of HRV parameters was executed using echocardiographic data from polysomnography. Between the control group (N = 81, AHI < 5) and OSAS patient group (N = 83, AHI > 15), standard deviation of NN (SDNN) intervals, SDNN index, HRV triangular index, very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF), 5-minute total power (TP), and low-frequency to high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio showed significant differences. In the correlation analysis between AHI and HRV parameters, only LF/HF ratio was proven to be significant. Elucidating the imbalance of ANS in OSAS patients was feasible by HRV and its parameters.
    Article · Jun 2015 · The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • Yoo Suk Kim · Do Yang Park · Dong Hyun Shin · [...] · Chang-Hoon Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dorsal augmentation is the most commonly performed procedure in rhinoplasty for Asian patients. Due to the anatomic features of the Asian nose, the use of nonautologous materials to obtain a proper degree of augmentation is inevitable in most cases. Because the use of nonautologous materials possesses a higher risk of complications, surgeons are concerned about selecting suitable materials for the procedure, especially in revision rhinoplasty. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the suitability and usefulness of a homologous material, Tutoplast-processed fascia lata (TPFL), in revision augmentation rhinoplasty. Retrospective analysis of 104 rhinoplasty patients (primary, 86; revision, 18) who had undergone dorsal augmentation using TPFL was conducted. The comparison of surgical outcomes between primary and revision surgery was made using objective [dorsal height (DH) and radix height (RH), complication rate] and subjective (patient satisfaction) parameters. The degree of augmentation represented by DH and RH was comparable between primary and revision rhinoplasty using TPFL. In comparing the rate of postoperative complications, only minor incidents were noted, in six cases after primary surgery and in one case after revision surgery. Patient satisfaction was measured in both primary and revision augmentation, with a significant difference observed between the two groups (40.57 ± 9.25 versus 31.48 ± 7.59; p < 0.05). TPFL is a feasible implant material that delivers suitable augmentation and patient satisfaction with minimal morbidity in both primary and revision rhinoplasty.
    Article · Apr 2015 · American journal of rhinology & allergy
  • Yoo Suk Kim · Yoo Seob Shin · Do Yang Park · [...] · Su A Park
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of three-dimensional (3D) printing has expanded in diverse areas in medicine. As plastic surgery needs to fulfill the different demands from diverse individuals, the applications of tailored 3D printing will become indispensable. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold seeded with fibrin/chondrocytes as a new dorsal augmentation material for rhinoplasty. The construct was surgically implanted on the nasal dorsum in the subperiosteal plane of six rabbits. The implants were harvested 4 and 12 weeks after implantation and evaluated by gross morphological assessment, radiographic imaging, and histologic examination. The initial shape of the implant was unchanged in all cases, and no definite post-operative complications were seen over the 3-month period. Radiologic evaluation confirmed that implants remained in the initial location without migration or extrusion. Histologic evaluations showed that the scaffold architectures were maintained with minimal inflammatory reactions; however, expected neo-chondrogenesis was not definite in the constructs. A new PCL scaffold designed by 3D printing method seeded with fibrin/chondrocytes can be a biocompatible augmentation material in rhinoplasty in the future.
    Article · Jan 2015 · Annals of Biomedical Engineering
  • Yoo Suk Kim · Do-Yang Park · Yong Hyun Cho · [...] · Chul Ho Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As there is no single ideal material for dorsal augmentation in rhinoplasty, there has been a continuing need for the development of improved materials. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the outcome of using a novel tissue-engineered construct composed of autologous chondrocytes cultured with a porcine cartilage-derived substance (PCS) scaffold as an augmentation material in rhinoplasty. A scaffold derived from decellularized and powdered porcine articular cartilage was prepared. The rabbit articular cartilage was used as the source of homologous chondrocytes, which were expanded and cultured with the PCS scaffold for 7 weeks. The chondrocyte-PCS constructs were then surgically implanted on the nasal dorsum of six rabbits. Four and eight weeks after implantation, the gross morphology, radiologic images, and histologic features of the site of implant were analyzed. The rabbits showed no signs of postoperative inflammation and infection. The degree of dorsal augmentation was maintained during the 8-week postoperative observation period. Postoperative histologic examinations showed chondrocyte proliferation without an inflammatory response. However, neo-cartilage formation from the constructs was not confirmed. The biocompatibility and structural features of tissue-engineered chondrocyte-PCS constructs indicate their potential as candidate dorsal augmentation material for use in rhinoplasty. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reconstruction of trachea is still a clinical dilemma. Tissue-engineering is a recent and promising concept to resolve this problem. This study evaluated the feasibility of allogeneic chondrocytes cultured with fibrin/hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel and degradable porous poly-(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold for partial tracheal reconstruction. Chondrocytes from rabbit articular cartilage were expanded and cultured with fibrin/HA hydrogel and injected into a 5 X 10 mm sized, curved patch shape PLGA scaffold. After 4 weeks in vitro culture, the scaffold was implanted on a tracheal defect in eight rabbits. Six and 10 weeks postoperatively, the implanted sites were evaluated by bronchoscope, radiologic and histologic analyses. Ciliary beat frequency of regenerated epithelium were also evaluated. None of the eight rabbits showed any sign of respiratory distress. Bronchoscopic examination did not reveal stenosis of the reconstructed trachea and the defects were completely recovered with respiratory epithelium. Computed tomography scan showed good luminal contour of trachea. Histologic data showed that the implanted chondrocytes successfully formed neocartilage with minimal granulation tissue. Ciliary beat frequency of regenerated epithelium was similar to that of normal epithelium. Partial tracheal defect was successfully reconstructed anatomically and functionally using allogeneic chondrocytes cultured with PLGA-fibrin/HA composite scaffold.
    Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering using a biocompatible scaffold with various cells might be a solution for tracheal reconstruction. We investigated the plausibility of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded on a porcine cartilage powder (PCP) scaffold for tracheal defect repair. PCP made with minced and decellularized porcine articular cartilage was molded into a 5 × 12 mm (height × diameter) scaffold. MSCs from young rabbit bone marrow were expanded and cultured with the PCP scaffold. After 7 weeks culture, the tracheal implants were transplanted on a 5 × 10 mm tracheal defect in six rabbits. 6 and 10 weeks postoperatively, the implanted area was evaluated. None of the six rabbits showed any sign of respiratory distress. Endoscopic examination revealed that respiratory epithelium completely covered the regenerated trachea and there were no signs of collapse or blockage. A patent luminal contour of the trachea was observed on the computed tomography scan in all six rabbits and the reconstructed areas were not narrow compared to normal adjacent trachea. Histologic examination showed that neo-cartilage was successfully produced with minimal inflammation or granulation tissue. Ciliary beating frequency of the regenerated epithelium was not significantly different from the normal adjacent mucosa. MSCs cultured with a PCP scaffold successfully restored not only the shape but also the function of the trachea without any graft rejection.
    Article · Sep 2014 · Annals of Biomedical Engineering
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives/HypothesisTo verify the reliability and validity of automated scoring and compare it to that of manual scoring for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea using an Embletta X100 level 2 portable device.Study DesignRetrospective study.MethodsA total of 116 patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea who had successfully received portable polysomnography with the Embletta X100 were examined. All polysomnography data were analyzed by automated and manual methods. Manual scoring was performed according to the revised American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2012 criteria. Automated scoring was analyzed using the automatic algorithm, which was updated with the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2012 criteria. All parameters were evaluated statistically using correlation analysis and paired t tests.ResultsThe apnea-hypopnea index for automated scoring and manual scoring with the Embletta X100 were moderately correlated (r = 0.76, P < .001). However, there was poor agreement (Bland-Altman plot, κ = 0.34, 0.33, and 0.26; cutoff value = 5, 15, and 30), and the apnea-hypopnea index data were generally excessively underestimated based on diagnostic agreement and disagreement criteria. Furthermore, the apnea-hypopnea index severity (Kendall tau-b = 0.62) between automated and manual scoring lacked good concordance.Conclusions Automated scoring using the Embletta X100 was statistically moderately related to the manual scoring results. However, automated scoring tended to excessively underestimate the apnea-hypopnea index data compared to manual scoring. Thus, manual scoring by a sleep expert is essential for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis with the Embletta X100.Level of Evidence4. Laryngoscope, 2014
    Article · Aug 2014 · The Laryngoscope
  • Yoo Suk Kim · Dong Woo Hyun · Sang Yeob Seong · [...] · Joo-Heon Yoon
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This paper aims to study whether immediate re-insertion of non-autologous augmentation material in revision augmentation rhinoplasty is a safe surgical strategy creating a successful and functional aesthetic outcome. Study Design: Retrospective review and analysis of medical records. Setting: Tertiary referral hospital. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 11 consecutive patients who had undergone removal of previous augmentation material and immediate re-insertion of non-autologous material in revision augmentation rhinoplasty was performed. Demographics, surgical approaches, augmentation materials, material-related complications, time interval between surgeries, surgical outcome, and follow-up period were included in the analysis to evaluate our surgical strategy. Results: A successful surgical outcome with respect to both functional and aesthetic aspects was obtained in nine of the 11 enrolled patients. In 1 patient, there was a recurrence of material-related complication, while another patient experienced unsatisfactory graft displacement. The unsuccessful cases had 2 common features in that silicone and endonasal approaches were used in the primary and revision surgeries, respectively. Conclusion: Removal of previous augmentation material and immediate re-insertion of non-autologous material for dorsal augmentation in revision rhinoplasty is feasible with respect to functional and aesthetic aspects of patient outcome. Copyright
    Article · Jul 2014 · Annals of Plastic Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional printing has come into the spotlight in the realm of tissue engineering. We intended to evaluate the plausibility of 3D-printed (3DP) scaffold coated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded in fibrin for the repair of partial tracheal defects. MSCs from rabbit bone marrow were expanded and cultured. A half-pipe-shaped 3DP polycaprolactone scaffold was coated with the MSCs seeded in fibrin. The half-pipe tracheal graft was implanted on a 10 × 10-mm artificial tracheal defect in four rabbits. Four and eight weeks after the operation, the reconstructed sites were evaluated bronchoscopically, radiologically, histologically, and functionally. None of the four rabbits showed any sign of respiratory distress. Endoscopic examination and computed tomography showed successful reconstruction of trachea without any collapse or blockage. The replaced tracheas were completely covered with regenerated respiratory mucosa. Histologic analysis showed that the implanted 3DP tracheal grafts were successfully integrated with the adjacent trachea without disruption or granulation tissue formation. Neo-cartilage formation inside the implanted graft was sufficient to maintain the patency of the reconstructed trachea. Scanning electron microscope examination confirmed the regeneration of the cilia, and beating frequency of regenerated cilia was not different from those of the normal adjacent mucosa. The shape and function of reconstructed trachea using 3DP scaffold coated with MSCs seeded in fibrin were restored successfully without any graft rejection.
    Article · May 2014 · Artificial Organs
  • Yoo Suk Kim · Chul-Ho Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the era of personalized medicine, selecting the ideal treatment modality for head and neck cancer is becoming more complex. Also, despite the use of the newest agents, overall survival has not been improved notably over the past few decades. Currently, in accordance with the development of diagnostic tools, prevention and early detection of cancer are being emphasized more in obtaining better treatment outcomes. Among the various cancer preventative methods, the use of green tea is one of the most common approaches, and tea is known to be involved in multiple steps of carcinogenesis. Thus, in this short review, the protective roles of green tea components against the initiation, progression, and metastasis of head and neck malignancies will be discussed.
    Article · Mar 2014
  • Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
  • Sang Yeob Seong · Dong Woo Hyun · Yoo Suk Kim · [...] · Chang-Hoon Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish the clinical features and prognostic factors of sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Thirty patients with histopathological diagnosis of sinonasal ACC who were treated at Severance Hospital between 1990 and 2010 were included in this retrospective chart review study. The 5-year disease-specific survival and disease-free survival rates were 75.3% and 37.2%, respectively. The maxillary sinus (63.3%) and nasal cavity (23.3%) were the most common sites of primary tumour. Most patients were diagnosed with advanced-stage (III/IV) disease (80.0%) and had undergone surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (70.0%). The most common histopathological subtype was cribriform type (40.9%). Local recurrence rate and distant metastasis rates were 26.7% and 23.3%, respectively. The mean time from primary treatment to recurrence was 44.5 months. Sinonasal ACC patients with stage IV and T4 disease had significantly worse survival than those with low stage and T disease. Patients with local recurrence had worse disease-specific survival than those with distant recurrence. Distant metastasis was associated with disease-free survival but not disease-specific survival. Despite the frequent occurrence of distant metastasis, early diagnosis and effective local control seemed to be the most important factors influencing the survival of sinonasal ACC.
    Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The submucosal gland (SMG) is important in the control of airway surface fluid. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 2 contributes to the pathophysiology of allergies in response to nonspecific allergens bearing proteases and anion secretion. House dust mites (HDMs) have abundant proteases that can activate PAR2, but little is known about the direct effect of HDM on SMG secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HDMs on glandular secretion and its mechanism in allergic patients, patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), or both. Inferior nasal turbinates were harvested from 55 patients and classified into 4 groups (the control, allergic rhinitis [AR], CRS, and AR+CRS groups). A microscope attached to a digital camera was used to quantify mucus bubbles from individual SMGs while stimulated with HDM extract, PAR2-activating peptide, and carbachol. PAR2 expression in the SMG was determined by means of immunostaining with anti-PAR2 mAb. HDM induced a significantly higher secretion rate and number of responding glands in the AR and AR+CRS groups than in the control group. Interestingly, patients in the CRS group, who had no HDM-specific IgE antibody, showed a higher response than the control group, and its response was suppressed by a PAR2-selective antagonist. The responses to PAR2-activating peptide were similar to those to HDM, and their secretion rates positively correlated with HDM responses. PAR2 was highly expressed in all 3 disease groups with immunostaining. HDM allergens can induce glandular secretion in patients with AR, CRS, or both, and PAR2 represents a possible mechanism for nonspecific hyperreactivity in inflammatory airway diseases.
    Article · Dec 2011 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The midfacial degloving approach (MFDA) is the primary option for the removal of benign and malignant sinonasal tumours. However, the classic MFDA does not compensate for the fact that most benign and malignant paranasal sinus (PNS) tumours are unilateral and the incisions may lead to some unnecessary complications?. Surgical exposure is limited to the upper and deep part of the PNS. Modifications of the classical MFDA that minimize complications and improve surgical field exposure are warranted. The medical records of 27 consecutive patients who had undergone surgery using a modified MFDA for treatment of unilateral benign or malignant tumours from 2000 to 2006, were reviewed. We developed and performed a modified MFDA utilizing a hemigingivobuccal incision, a transfixion incision, mucosal detachment of the pyriform aperture and separation of the upper lateral cartilage from the nasal bone in 27 patients with unilateral benign (85%) or malignant (15%) PNS neoplasms. Adequate surgical exposure was achieved in all cases. No technical problems and no intraoperative complications related to the surgical procedure were encountered. Our modified MFDA provides sufficient surgical exposure for the removal of unilateral malignant or benign PNS tumours with few surgical or cosmetic complications.
    Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
  • Yoo Suk Kim · Na Hyun Kim · Sang Yeob Seong · [...] · Kyung-Su Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common inflammatory diseases with multiple etiologies. Despite its high prevalence, risk factors influencing its prevalence have not been thoroughly revealed. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of CRS in Korea. The 4098 subjects that participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in the study. Risk factors were categorized into sociodemographic and personal medical factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify significant risk factors of CRS. In addition, population attributable risks of the significant factors were calculated to estimate the effect on the population level. The prevalence of CRS in Korea was 6.95%. Among sociodemographic factors, male sex, old age, and heavy stress were significantly related with CRS. Influenza vaccination, septal deviation, and persistent allergic rhinitis were significant personal medical risk factors of CRS. Among these risk factors, persistent/moderate to severe allergic rhinitis was proven to be the most significant risk factor for CRS at the population level. Although the prevalence and risk factors vary according to time, place, and diagnostic criteria, periodic epidemiological study on CRS is necessary to reduce socioeconomic expenditure and establish an improved national health care policy.
    Article · May 2011 · American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy