[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The AP1 transcription factor Batf3 is required for homeostatic development of CD8α(+) classical dendritic cells that prime CD8 T-cell responses against intracellular pathogens. Here we identify an alternative, Batf3-independent pathway in mice for CD8α(+) dendritic cell development operating during infection with intracellular pathogens and mediated by the cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon-γ. This alternative pathway results from molecular compensation for Batf3 provided by the related AP1 factors Batf, which also functions in T and B cells, and Batf2 induced by cytokines in response to infection. Reciprocally, physiological compensation between Batf and Batf3 also occurs in T cells for expression of IL-10 and CTLA4. Compensation among BATF factors is based on the shared capacity of their leucine zipper domains to interact with non-AP1 factors such as IRF4 and IRF8 to mediate cooperative gene activation. Conceivably, manipulating this alternative pathway of dendritic cell development could be of value in augmenting immune responses to vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 (Meis1) forms a heterodimer with Pbx1 that augments Hox-dependent gene expression and is associated with leukemogenesis and HSC self-renewal. Here we identified 2 independent actions of Meis1 in hematopoietic development: one regulating cellular proliferation and the other involved in megakaryocyte lineage development. First, we found that endogenous Mesp1 indirectly induces Meis1 and Meis2 in endothelial cells derived from embryonic stem cells. Overexpression of Meis1 and Meis2 greatly enhanced the formation of hematopoietic colonies from embryonic stem cells, with the exception of erythroid colonies, by maintaining hematopoietic progenitor cells in a state of proliferation. Second, overexpression of Meis1 repressed the development of early erythroid progenitors, acting in vivo at the megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor stage to skew development away from erythroid generation and toward megakaryocyte development. This previously unrecognized action of Meis1 may explain the embryonic lethality observed in Meis1(-/-) mice that arises from failure of lymphatic-venous separation and can result as a consequence of defective platelet generation. These results show that Meis1 exerts 2 independent functions, with its role in proliferation of hematopoietic progenitors acting earlier in development from its influence on the fate choice at the megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor between megakaryocytic and erythroid development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distinguishing dendritic cells (DCs) from other cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system is complicated by the shared expression of cell surface markers such as CD11c. In this study, we identified Zbtb46 (BTBD4) as a transcription factor selectively expressed by classical DCs (cDCs) and their committed progenitors but not by plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), monocytes, macrophages, or other lymphoid or myeloid lineages. Using homologous recombination, we replaced the first coding exon of Zbtb46 with GFP to inactivate the locus while allowing detection of Zbtb46 expression. GFP expression in Zbtb46(gfp/+) mice recapitulated the cDC-specific expression of the native locus, being restricted to cDC precursors (pre-cDCs) and lymphoid organ- and tissue-resident cDCs. GFP(+) pre-cDCs had restricted developmental potential, generating cDCs but not pDCs, monocytes, or macrophages. Outside the immune system, Zbtb46 was expressed in committed erythroid progenitors and endothelial cell populations. Zbtb46 overexpression in bone marrow progenitor cells inhibited granulocyte potential and promoted cDC development, and although cDCs developed in Zbtb46(gfp/gfp) (Zbtb46 deficient) mice, they maintained expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and leukemia inhibitory factor receptors, which are normally down-regulated in cDCs. Thus, Zbtb46 may help enforce cDC identity by restricting responsiveness to non-DC growth factors and may serve as a useful marker to identify rare cDC progenitors and distinguish between cDCs and other mononuclear phagocyte lineages.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) subsets differ in precursor cell of origin, functional properties, requirements for growth factors, and dependence on transcription factors. Lymphoid-tissue resident CD8α(+) conventional DCs (cDCs) and CD11b(low/-)CD103(+) non-lymphoid DCs are developmentally related, each being dependent on FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), and requiring the transcription factors Batf3, Irf8, and Id2 for development. It was recently suggested that granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was required for the development of dermal CD11b(low/-)Langerin(+)CD103(+) DCs, and that this dermal DC subset was required for priming autoreactive T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). Here, we compared development of peripheral tissue DCs and susceptibility to EAE in GM-CSF receptor deficient (Csf2rb(-/-)) and Batf3(-/-) mice. We find that Batf3-dependent dermal CD11b(low/-)Langerin(+) DCs do develop in Csf2rb(-/-) mice, but that they express reduced, but not absent, levels of CD103. Further, Batf3(-/-) mice lacking all peripheral CD11b(low/-) DCs show robust Th cell priming after subcutaneous immunization and are susceptible to EAE. Our results suggest that defective T effector priming and resistance to EAE exhibited by Csf2rb(-/-) mice does not result from the absence of dermal CD11b(low/-)Langerin(+)CD103(+) DCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous population within the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) that derive from bone marrow precursors. Commitment and specification of hematopoietic progenitors to the DC lineage is critical for the proper induction of both immunity and tolerance. This review summarizes the important cytokines and transcription factors required for differentiation of the DC lineage as well as further diversification into specific DC subsets. We highlight recent advances in the characterization of immediate DC precursors arising from the common myeloid progenitor (CMP). Particular emphasis is placed on the corresponding temporal expression of relevant factors involved in regulating developmental options.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Seminars in Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD8α(+) dendritic cells (DCs) prime cytotoxic T lymphocytes during viral infections and produce interleukin-12 in response to pathogens. Although the loss of CD8α(+) DCs in Batf3(-/-) mice increases their susceptibility to several pathogens, we observed that Batf3(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced resistance to the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. In wild-type mice, Listeria organisms, initially located in the splenic marginal zone, migrated to the periarteriolar lymphoid sheath (PALS) where they grew exponentially and induced widespread lymphocyte apoptosis. In Batf3(-/-) mice, however, Listeria organisms remain trapped in the marginal zone, failed to traffic into the PALS, and were rapidly cleared by phagocytes. In addition, Batf3(-/-) mice, which lacked the normal population of hepatic CD103(+) peripheral DCs, also showed protection from liver infection. These results suggest that Batf3-dependent CD8α(+) and CD103(+) DCs provide initial cellular entry points within the reticuloendothelial system by which Listeria establishes productive infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although CD103-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) are widely present in nonlymphoid tissues, the transcription factors controlling their development and their relationship to other DC subsets remain unclear. Mice lacking the transcription factor Batf3 have a defect in the development of CD8alpha+ conventional DCs (cDCs) within lymphoid tissues. We demonstrate that Batf3(-/-) mice also lack CD103+CD11b- DCs in the lung, intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), dermis, and skin-draining lymph nodes. Notably, Batf3(-/-) mice displayed reduced priming of CD8 T cells after pulmonary Sendai virus infection, with increased pulmonary inflammation. In the MLNs and intestine, Batf3 deficiency resulted in the specific lack of CD103+CD11b- DCs, with the population of CD103+CD11b+ DCs remaining intact. Batf3(-/-) mice showed no evidence of spontaneous gastrointestinal inflammation and had a normal contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response, despite previous suggestions that CD103+ DCs were required for immune homeostasis in the gut and CHS. The relationship between CD8alpha+ cDCs and nonlymphoid CD103+ DCs implied by their shared dependence on Batf3 was further supported by similar patterns of gene expression and their shared developmental dependence on the transcription factor Irf8. These data provide evidence for a developmental relationship between lymphoid organ-resident CD8alpha+ cDCs and nonlymphoid CD103+ DCs.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Experimental Medicine