Vivian V Costa

Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, Tumasik, Singapore

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Publications (22)129.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The leaves of Echinodorus grandiflorus are traditionally used in Brazil to treat several inflammatory conditions, including arthritis. This study aimed to investigate the antiarthritis activity of the 70 % ethanol extract of E. grandiflorus leaves and a standardized flavonoid-rich fraction in an antigen-induced arthritis model in mice. Previously immunized mice were treated per os with saline (control group), 70 % ethanol extract (100-1000 mg/kg), or a flavonoid-rich fraction (0.7-7.2 mg/kg) 40 minutes before and 3 and 6 hours after the challenge with antigen into the knee joint. The administration of the 70 % ethanol extract and flavonoid-rich fraction to mice significantly reduced neutrophil recruitment to the joint cavity and in periarticular tissue. The levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β quantified by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the periarticular tissue were also diminished in mice treated with the 70 % ethanol extract and flavonoid-rich fraction, as well as mechanical hypernociception. Histological analysis confirmed that both the 70 % ethanol extract and flavonoid-rich fraction suppressed joint inflammation and inhibited cartilage and bone destruction when compared to the control group. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that E. grandiflorus has anti-inflammatory activity in an experimental arthritis model and highlights the role of flavonoids in the observed response.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Planta Medica
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    ABSTRACT: Pain is one of the main symptoms of multiple sclerosis, a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that affects millions of people worldwide. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is considered an experimental model of multiple sclerosis, and besides motor weakness, hypernociception is one of the clinical signs of animals with EAE. In this study, we investigated the influence of some cytokines in the generation of the hypernociceptive response in a mouse model of EAE using MOG35-55. We measured some cytokines in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), an important anatomical structure involved in pain. We found increased levels of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and Kc in DRGs of animals with EAE. We used the antibody IL-1ra to antagonize the effects of IL-1β, and animals presented a decrease in the hypernociceptive response. Thus, our results suggest that hypernociception in this experimental model of EAE may be a consequence of the increase in some cytokines in DRGs, especially IL-1β.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Molecular Neurobiology
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    ABSTRACT: The mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) is a cause of significant global health burden, with an estimated 390 million infections occurring annually. However, no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for dengue is available. DENV interacts with host cell factors to complete its life cycle although this virus-host interplay remains to be fully elucidated. Many studies have identified the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) to be important for successful DENV production, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle as host factors remains ill defined. We show here that proteasome inhibition decouples infectious virus production from viral RNA replication in antibody-dependent infection of THP-1 cells. Molecular and imaging analyses in β-lactone treated THP-1 cells suggest that proteasome function does not prevent virus assembly but rather DENV egress. Intriguingly, the licensed proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, is able to inhibit DENV titers at low nanomolar drug concentrations for different strains of all four serotypes of DENV in primary monocytes. Furthermore, bortezomib treatment of DENV-infected mice inhibited the spread of DENV in the spleen as well as the overall pathological changes. Our findings suggest that preventing DENV egress through proteasome inhibition could be a suitable therapeutic strategy against dengue.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Acetylcholine (ACh) is the main mediator associated with the anti-inflammatory cholinergic pathway. ACh plays an inhibitory role in several inflammatory conditions. Sepsis is a severe clinical syndrome characterized by bacterial dissemination and overproduction of inflammatory mediators. The aim of the current study was to investigate the participation of endogenous ACh in the modulation of inflammatory response induced by a model of polymicrobial sepsis. Wild type (WT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter knockdown (VAChTKD) mice were exposed to cecal ligation and perforation-induced sepsis. Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) and bacterial growth in peritoneal cavity and serum, and neutrophil recruitment into peritoneal cavity were assessed. The concentration of TNF-α in both compartments was higher in VAChTKD in comparison with WT mice. VAChTKD mice presented elevated burden of bacteria in peritoneum and blood, and impairment of neutrophil migration to peritoneal cavity. This phenotype was reversed by treatment with nicotine salt. These findings suggest that endogenous ACh plays a major role in the control of sepsis-associated inflammatory response.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Current neurovascular research
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    ABSTRACT: Gout manifests as recurrent episodes of acute joint inflammation and pain due to the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals within the affected tissue in a process dependent on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The synthesis, activation and release of IL-1β are crucial for MSU-induced inflammation. The current study evaluated the mechanism by which TNF-α contributed to MSU-induced inflammation. Male C57BL/6J or transgenic mice were used in this study and inflammation was induced by the injection of MSU crystals into the joint. TNF-α was markedly increased in the joint after the injection of MSU. There was inhibition in the infiltration of neutrophils, production of CXCL1 and IL-1β and decreased hypernociception in mice deficient for TNF-α or its receptors. Pharmacological blockade of TNF-α with Etanercept or pentoxyfylline produced similar results. Mechanistically, TNF-α blockade resulted in lower amounts of IL-1β protein and pro-IL-1β mRNA transcripts in joints. Gene-modified mice that express only transmembrane TNF-α had an inflammatory response similar to that of WT mice and blockade of soluble TNF-α (XPro™1595) did not decrease MSU-induced inflammation. In conclusion, TNF-α drives expression of pro-IL-1β mRNA and IL-1β protein in experimental gout and that its transmembrane form is sufficient to trigger MSU-induced inflammation in mice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · European Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease, causing nearly 400 million infections yearly. Currently there are no approved therapies. Antibody epitopes that elicit weak humoral responses may not be accessible by conventional B cell panning methods. To demonstrate an alternative strategy to generating a therapeutic antibody, we employed a non-immunodominant, but functionally relevant, epitope in domain III of the E protein, and engineered by structure-guided methods an antibody directed to it. The resulting antibody, Ab513, exhibits high-affinity binding to, and broadly neutralizes, multiple genotypes within all four serotypes. To assess therapeutic relevance of Ab513, activity against important human clinical features of dengue was investigated. Ab513 mitigates thrombocytopenia in a humanized mouse model, resolves vascular leakage, reduces viremia to nearly undetectable levels, and protects mice in a maternal transfer model of lethal antibody-mediated enhancement. The results demonstrate that Ab513 may reduce the public health burden from dengue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Cell
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    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease characterized by persistent inflammation and pain. Alternative therapies to reduce these symptoms are needed. Marine algae are valuable sources of diverse bioactive compounds. Lithothamnion muelleri (Hapalidiaceae) is a marine algae with anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory properties. Here, we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of L. muelleri in a murine model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice. Our results demonstrate that treatment with L. muelleri prevented inflammation and hypernociception in arthritic mice. Mechanistically, the crude extract and the polysaccharide-rich fractions of L. muelleri may act impairing the production of the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, and consequently inhibit neutrophil influx to the knee joint by dampening the adhesion step of leukocyte recruitment in the knee microvessels. Altogether our results suggest that treatment with L.muelleri has a potential therapeutic application in arthritis treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by one of four serotypes of Dengue virus (DENV-1-4). Epidemiologic and observational studies demonstrate that the majority of severe dengue cases, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), occurs predominantly in either individuals with cross-reactive immunity following a secondary heterologous infection or in infants with primary DENV infections born from dengue-immune mothers, suggesting that B-cell-mediated and antibody responses impact on disease evolution. We demonstrate here that B cells play a pivotal role in host responses against primary DENV infection in mice. After infection, μMT(-/-) mice showed increased viral loads followed by severe disease manifestation characterized by intense thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, cytokine production and massive liver damage that culminated in death. In addition, we show that poly and monoclonal anti-DENV-specific antibodies can sufficiently increase viral replication through a suppression of early innate antiviral responses and enhance disease manifestation, so that a mostly non-lethal illness becomes a fatal disease resembling human DHF/DSS. Finally, treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin containing anti-DENV antibodies confirmed the potential enhancing capacity of subneutralizing antibodies to mediate virus infection and replication and induce severe disease manifestation of DENV-infected mice. Thus, our results show that humoral responses unleashed during DENV infections can exert protective or pathological outcomes and provide insight into the pathogenesis of this important human pathogen.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease (PD) has long been studied and some reports suggest that treating RA may improve the associated PD, and vice versa. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy with pentoxifylline (PTX) in an experimental model of RA-associated PD. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to chronic antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) and daily treated with PTX (50 mg/kg, i.p.) using preventive (Pre-PTX) or therapeutic (The-PTX) strategies. Fourteen days after the antigen challenge, mice were euthanized and knee joints, maxillae and serum were collected for microscopic and/or immunoenzimatic analysis. AIA triggered significant leukocyte recruitment to the synovial cavity, tissue damage and proteoglycan loss in the knee joint. Pre-PTX and The-PTX regimens decreased these signs of joint inflammation. The increased levels of TNF-α and IL-17 in periarticular tissues of AIA mice were also reduced by both PTX treatments. Serum levels of C-reactive protein, which were augmented after AIA, were reduced by the PTX regimens. Concomitantly to AIA, mice presented alveolar bone loss, and recruitment of osteoclasts and neutrophils to periodontal tissues. Pre-PTX and The-PTX prevented and treated these signs of PD. PTX treatment also decreased TNF-α and increased IL-10 expression in the maxillae of AIA mice, although it did not affect the expression of IFN-γ and IL-17. The current study shows the anti-inflammatory and bone protective effects of preventive and therapeutic PTX treatments, which decreased the joint damage triggered by AIA and the associated periodontal co-morbidity.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Life sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin (Ang) II and its AT1 receptors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Activation of the counter-regulatory Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis may contribute to some of the effects of AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs). In this study, we have used losartan, an ARB, to investigate the role of and the mechanisms by which AT1 receptors participated in two experimental models of arthritis: antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice and adjuvant-induced arthritis (AdIA) in rats. Treatment with losartan decreased neutrophil recruitment, hypernociception and the production of TNF-α, IL-1β and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 in mice subjected to AIA. Histopathological analysis showed significant reduction of tissue injury and inflammation and decreased proteoglycan loss. In addition to decreasing cytokine production, losartan directly reduced leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Anti-inflammatory effects of losartan were not associated to Mas receptor activation and/or Ang-(1-7) production. Anti-inflammatory effects were reproduced in rats subjected to AdIA. This study shows that ARBs have potent anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of arthritis. Mechanistically, reduction of leukocyte accumulation and of joint damage was associated with local inhibition of cytokine production and direct inhibition of leukocyte-endothelium interactions. The anti-inflammatory actions of losartan were accompanied by functional improvement of the joint, as seen by reduced joint hypernociception. These findings support the use of ARBs for the treatment of human arthritis and provide potential mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory actions of these compounds.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Peptides
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue disease is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and incidence. Infection by one of the four serotypes of dengue virus induces a spectrum of disease manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening Dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Many efforts have been made to elucidate several aspects of dengue virus-induced disease, but the pathogenesis of disease is complex and remains unclear. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the early stages of infection is crucial to determine and develop safe therapeutics to prevent the severe outcomes of disease without interfering with control of infection. In this review, we discuss the dual role of the innate and inflammatory pathways activated during dengue disease in mediating both protection and exacerbation of disease. We show that some mediators involved in each of these responses differ substantially, suggesting that interfering in disease-associated immune pathways may represent a potential therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of severe dengue.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · American Journal Of Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: There are few animal models of dengue infection, especially in immunocompetent mice. Here, we describe alterations found in adult immunocompetent mice inoculated with an adapted Dengue virus (DENV-3) strain. Infection of mice with the adapted DENV-3 caused inoculum-dependent lethality that was preceded by several hematological and biochemical changes and increased virus dissemination, features consistent with severe disease manifestation in humans. IFN-γ expression increased after DENV-3 infection of WT mice and this was preceded by increase in expression of IL-12 and IL-18. In DENV-3-inoculated IFN-γ(-/-) mice, there was enhanced lethality, which was preceded by severe disease manifestation and virus replication. Lack of IFN-γ production was associated with diminished NO-synthase 2 (NOS2) expression and higher susceptibility of NOS2(-/-) mice to DENV-3 infection. Therefore, mechanisms of protection to DENV-3 infection rely on IFN-γ-NOS2-NO-dependent control of viral replication and of disease severity, a pathway showed to be relevant for resistance to DENV infection in other experimental and clinical settings. Thus, the model of DENV-3 infection in immunocompetent mice described here represents a significant advance in animal models of severe dengue disease and may provide an important tool to the elucidation of immunopathogenesis of disease and of protective mechanisms associated with infection.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Deposition of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in the joints promotes an intense inflammatory response and joint dysfunction. This study evaluated the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)-derived leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4) ) in driving tissue inflammation and hypernociception in a murine model of gout. Gout was induced by injecting MSU crystals into the joints of mice. Wild-type mice and mice deficient in NLRP3, ASC, caspase 1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI), IL-18R, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), or 5-LOX were used. Evaluations were performed to assess neutrophil influx, LTB(4) activity, cytokine (IL-1β, CXCL1) production (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), synovial microvasculature cell adhesion (by intravital microscopy), and hypernociception. Cleaved caspase 1 and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed in macrophages by Western blotting and fluorometric assay, respectively. Injection of MSU crystals into the knee joints of mice induced neutrophil influx and neutrophil-dependent hypernociception. MSU crystal-induced neutrophil influx was CXCR2-dependent and relied on the induction of CXCL1 in an NLRP3/ASC/caspase 1/IL-1β/MyD88-dependent manner. LTB(4) was produced rapidly after injection of MSU crystals, and this was necessary for caspase 1-dependent IL-1β production and consequent release of CXCR2-acting chemokines in vivo. In vitro, macrophages produced LTB(4) after MSU crystal injection, and LTB(4) was relevant in the MSU crystal-induced maturation of IL-1β. Mechanistically, LTB(4) drove MSU crystal-induced production of ROS and ROS-dependent activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These results reveal the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in mediating MSU crystal-induced inflammation and dysfunction of the joints, and highlight a previously unrecognized role of LTB(4) in driving NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to MSU crystals, both in vitro and in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
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    Dataset: Figure S2
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    ABSTRACT: IL-23 does not participate in IFN-γ-mediated resistance to DENV infection. (A–D) WT and IL-23p19−/− mice were inoculated with 10LD50 of DENV-2 and at the seventh day of infection, the following parameters were assessed: IFN-γ concentration in serum (A), measured by ELISA; platelet counts (B) and hematocrit (C) in blood; Viral loads recovered from the spleen, by plaque assay (D). Results are expressed as mean ± SEM (except for D, expressed as median) and are representative of at least two independent experiments. N = 4 mice per group. * P<0.05 vs. NI. # P<0.05 vs. WT. NI: Not infected. ND: Not detected. (TIF)
    Preview · Dataset · Dec 2011
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    Dataset: Figure S1
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    ABSTRACT: Disease parameters in BALB/c mice infected with an adapted strain of DENV-3. (A) WT mice (n = 6 mice per group) were inoculated with different inoculums of adapted-DENV-3 (i.p) and lethality was evaluated every 12 hours for 14 days. Results are expressed as % of survival. In Figs (B–E) WT mice (n = 6 per group) were inoculated with 1LD50 (100 PFU) of DENV-3 (i.p) and in the third, fifth or in the seventh day of infection mice were culled and blood and tissues were collected for the following analysis: (B) Change in body weight was expressed as percentage of initial weight loss. (C) Mechanical hypernociception was assessed daily. Results are shown as the difference between the force (g) necessary to induce dorsal flexion of tibio-tarsal joint, followed by paw withdraw, before and after DENV-3 inoculation. (D) Hematocrit was expressed as % volume occupied by red blood cells (left panel) and the number of platelets was shown as platelets ×103/µl of blood (right panel) and. In (E) AST and ALT activity determination in plasma of control and DENV-3-infected mice was shown as U/dL of plasma. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM and are representative of at least two experiments. * for P<0.05 when compared to control uninfected mice. 1 LD50 corresponds to 100 PFU of DENV-3. NI – not-infected. dpi- days post-infection. (TIF)
    Preview · Dataset · Dec 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by one of four serotypes of Dengue virus (DENV-1-4). Severe dengue infection in humans is characterized by thrombocytopenia, increased vascular permeability, hemorrhage and shock. However, there is little information about host response to DENV infection. Here, mechanisms accounting for IFN-γ production and effector function during dengue disease were investigated in a murine model of DENV-2 infection. IFN-γ expression was greatly increased after infection of mice and its production was preceded by increase in IL-12 and IL-18 levels. In IFN-γ(-/-) mice, DENV-2-associated lethality, viral loads, thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, and liver injury were enhanced, when compared with wild type-infected mice. IL-12p40(-/-) and IL-18(-/-) infected-mice showed decreased IFN-γ production, which was accompanied by increased disease severity, higher viral loads and enhanced lethality. Blockade of IL-18 in infected IL-12p40(-/-) mice resulted in complete inhibition of IFN-γ production, greater DENV-2 replication, and enhanced disease manifestation, resembling the response seen in DENV-2-infected IFN-γ(-/-) mice. Reduced IFN-γ production was associated with diminished Nitric Oxide-synthase 2 (NOS2) expression and NOS2(-/-) mice had elevated lethality, more severe disease evolution and increased viral load after DENV-2 infection. Therefore, IL-12/IL-18-induced IFN-γ production and consequent NOS2 induction are of major importance to host resistance against DENV infection.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease (PD) are prevalent chronic inflammatory disorders that affect bone structures. Individuals with RA are more likely to experience PD, but how disease in joints could induce PD remains unknown. This study aimed to experimentally mimic clinical parameters of RA-induced PD and to provide mechanistic findings to explain this association. Chronic Ag-induced arthritis (AIA) was triggered by injection of methylated BSA in the knee joint of immunized mice. Anti-TNF-α was used to assess the role of this cytokine. Intra-articular challenge induced infiltration of cells, synovial hyperplasia, bone resorption, proteoglycan loss, and increased expression of cytokines exclusively in challenged joints. Simultaneously, AIA resulted in severe alveolar bone loss, migration of osteoclasts, and release of proinflammatory cytokines in maxillae. Anti-TNF-α therapy prevented the development of both AIA and PD. AIA did not modify bacterial counts in the oral cavity. PD, but not AIA, induced by injection of Ag in immunized mice was decreased by local treatment with antiseptic, which decreased the oral microbiota. AIA was associated with an increase in serum C-reactive protein levels and the expression of the transcription factors RORγ and Foxp3 in cervical lymph nodes. There were higher titers of anti-collagen I IgG, and splenocytes were more responsive to collagen I in AIA mice. In conclusion, AIA-induced PD was dependent on TNF-α and the oral microbiota. Moreover, PD was associated with changes in expression of lymphocyte transcription factors, presence of anti-collagen Abs, and increased reactivity to autoantigens.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Infection by one of the four serotypes of the arthropod-borne dengue virus produces a spectrum of disease manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening Dengue hemorrhagic fever/Dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). During the last several decades, dengue has spread its geographic distribution to become the most common arboviral infection of humans in the subtropical and tropical regions of the world. There is no specific treatment or vaccine approved for human use. This fact, associated with the large number of infected individuals and the lack of markers that indicate which patients will develop severe disease, place an enormous burden on health systems of affected countries. Many efforts have been made to elucidate several aspects of dengue disease, but the pathogenesis of disease is complex and remains unclear. The hallmark of severe dengue disease is a short-lived plasma leakage that is believed to be immune mediated. Understanding the mechanism(s) that underlie the pathogenesis of dengue is critical for the development of safe therapeutics to prevent DHF/DSS. In this review, we highlight potential therapeutic alternatives to treat dengue infection and outline strategies used to develop and research anti-dengue therapies, focusing on in vivo results obtained using the experimental animal models currently available. Within this context, we discuss the therapeutic potential of novel antiviral molecules, either targeting virus-encoded functions or the cellular functions needed for viral replication. In addition, we discuss studies using anti-inflammatory strategies aimed at reducing the exacerbated host response against infection and their potential as promising therapeutic alternatives in severe dengue disease. Drug Dev Res 72:480–500, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Drug Development Research
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophil accumulation contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This study was undertaken to examine the ability of H2O2 to influence neutrophilic inflammation in a model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice. AIA was induced by administration of antigen into the knee joints of previously immunized mice. Neutrophil accumulation was measured by counting neutrophils in the synovial cavity and assaying myeloperoxidase activity in the tissue surrounding the mouse knee joint. Apoptosis was determined by morphologic and molecular techniques. The role of H2O2 was studied using mice that do not produce reactive oxygen species (gp91phox-/- mice) and drugs that enhance the generation or enhance the degradation of H2O2. Antigen challenge of immunized mice induced neutrophil accumulation that peaked at 12-24 hours after challenge. H2O2 production peaked at 24 hours, after which time, the inflammation resolved. Neutrophil recruitment was similar in wild-type and gp91phox-/- mice, but there was delayed resolution in gp91phox-/- mice or after administration of catalase. In contrast, administration of H2O2 or superoxide dismutase (SOD) resolved neutrophilic inflammation. The resolution of inflammation induced by SOD or H2O2 was accompanied by an increase in the number of apoptotic neutrophils. Apoptosis was associated with an increase in Bax and caspase 3 cleavage and was secondary to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation. Our findings indicate that levels of H2O2 increase during neutrophil influx and are necessary for the natural resolution of neutrophilic inflammation. Mechanistically, enhanced levels of H2O2 (endogenous or exogenous) inhibit p-Akt/NF-κB and induce apoptosis of migrated neutrophils. Modulation of H2O2 production may represent a novel strategy for controlling neutrophilic inflammation in the joints.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue, one of the most important arboviral diseases of humans, may cause severe systemic disease. Although dengue virus (DENV) has been considered to be a non-neurotropic virus, dengue infection has been associated recently with a series of neurological syndromes, including encephalitis. In this work, we evaluated behavioral changes and inflammatory parameters in C57BL/6 mice infected with non-adapted dengue virus 3 (DENV-3) genotype I. C57BL/6 mice received 4×10(3) PFU of DENV-3 by an intracranial route. We evaluated the trafficking of leukocytes in brain microvasculature using intravital microscopy, and evaluated chemokine and cytokine profiling by an ELISA test at 3 and 6 days post infection (p.i.). Furthermore, we determined myeloperoxidase activity and immune cell populations, and also performed histopathological analysis and immunostaining for the virus in brain tissue. All animals developed signs of encephalitis and died by day 8 p.i. Motor behavior and muscle tone and strength parameters declined at day 7 p.i. We observed increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion in brain microvasculature of infected mice at days 3 and 6 p.i. The infection was followed by significant increases in IFN-γ, TNF-α, CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, and CXCL2. Histological analysis showed evidence of meningoencephalitis and reactive gliosis. Increased numbers of neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected in brain of infected animals, notably at day 6 p.i. Cells immunoreactive for anti-NS-3 were visualized throughout the brain. Intracerebral infection with non-adapted DENV-3 induces encephalitis and behavioral changes that precede lethality in mice.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Neuroinflammation

Publication Stats

397 Citations
129.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2008-2015
    • Federal University of Minas Gerais
      • • Institute of Biological Sciences
      • • Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia
      Cidade de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil
  • 2011
    • Instituto De Ciências Farmacêuticas
      Aparecida de Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil