Publications (2)7.49 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: The poor prognosis and recurrence of HCC are majorly caused by intrahepatic metastasis. Delineating the molecular pathways mediating these processes may benefit developing effective targeting therapies. Using human hepatoma HepG2 as a model, we have found reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cooperate with protein kinase C (PKC) for sustained ERK phosphorylation and migration of HepG2 induced by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). We further investigated whether integrin signaling is involved. Various antagonists of integrin signaling prevented TPA-induced activation of ERK and PKC, ROS generation and migration of HepG2. On the other hand, TPA-induced phosphorylation of integrin signaling components including focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src (Tyr416) and paxillin (Tyr31 and Ser178) can be prevented by PKC inhibitor Bisindolylmaleimides (BIS) and antioxidant dithiotheritol (DTT). HepG2 overexpressing PKCα contained elevated phosphorylated paxillin. Also, ROS generator phenazine methosulfate and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide may induce phosphorylation of paxillin and activation of PKC. Taken together, ROS mediated cross talk of PKC and integrin for migration of HepG2 induced by TPA. Furthermore, TPA induced intrahepatic metastasis of HepG2 in SCID mice, which was prevented by BIS or (BIS plus DTT). Elevated phosphorylation of paxillin was observed in tumor of mice treated with TPA as compared with those co-treated with TPA/BIS. In summary, the signal pathways for tumor progression of hepatoma induced by TPA can be established both in vitro and in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: Snail is a multifunctional transcriptional factor that has been described as a repressor in many different contexts. It is also proposed as an activator in a few cases relevant to tumor progression and cell-cycle arrest. This study investigated the detailed mechanisms by which Snail upregulates gene expression of the CDK inhibitor p15INK4b in HepG2 induced by the tumor promoter tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). Using deletion mapping, the TPA-responsive element on the p15INK4b promoter was located between 77 and 228 bp upstream of the transcriptional initiation site, within which the putative binding regions of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) and stimulatory protein 1 (SP-1) were found. Gene expression of EGR-1, Snail and SP-1 can be induced by TPA within 0.5–6 h. In addition, basal levels of SP-1, but not of the other two transcriptional factors, were observed. Blockade of TPA-induced gene expression of Snail, EGR-1 or SP-1 suppressed activation of the p15–pro228 reporter plasmid harboring the TPA-responsive element. More detailed deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis further concluded that the overlapping EGR-1/SP-1-binding site was required for TPA-induced p15–pro228 activation. In an EMSA, a DNA–protein complex was elevated by TPA, which can be blocked by antibodies against EGR-1, SP-1 or Snail at 6 h. Immunoprecipitation/western blotting demonstrated that TPA could trigger the association of EGR-1 with Snail or SP-1. Furthermore, a double chromatin immunoprecipitation assay verified that EGR-1 could form a complex with Snail or SP-1 on the TPA-responsive element after treatment with TPA for 2–6 h. Finally, we demonstrated a novel Snail-target region which could be bound by Snail and was also required for TPA-induced p15–pro228 activation. In conclusion, Snail associates with EGR-1 and SP-1 to mediate TPA-induced transcriptional upregulation of p15INK4b in HepG2. Structured digital abstract