T P Greco

Waterbury Hospital, Waterbury, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (11)78.68 Total impact

  • T P Greco · A M Conti-Kelly
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    ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) positive patients and patients with purported chronic Lyme disease ('CLD') share many clinical features. After identifying significant aPL in sera of several index patients with 'CLD', we performed aPL tests on all patients referred in whom 'CLD' was suspected, diagnosed or treated. All patients with suspected, diagnosed or treated 'CLD' and reportedly 'positive' Lyme assays were studied. aPL testing included anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), anti-beta-2-glycoprotein-1 antibodies (anti-β2GP1) and lupus anticoagulant (LAC). Patients were classified into four newly described categories of CLD and data was analyzed. One hundred and six patients were evaluated, of whom 82% had neurologic symptoms and 51% rheumatologic symptoms. Eighty-eight of 106 (83%) patients had positive Lyme serologies (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] 62/106, 58.4%; western blot [WB] 64/106, 60%), while 18/106 (16.9%) were negative or equivocal. aPL was found in all 'CLD' categories. aCL and/or anti-β2GP1 were positive in 85/106 (80%), with aCL present in 69/106 (65%) and anti-β2GP1 present in 69/106 (65%). For all assays, IgM isotypes predominated: WB 55/64 (85%), aCL 63/69 (91%), anti-β2GP1 52/69 (75%), aCL and/or anti-β2GP1 74/85 (87%). Anti-β2GP1 assays occurred in higher titer than aCL: 36/69 (52%) versus 63/69 (91%), p<0.001. Seventeen patients had aPL-related events. Only 12/106 (11.3%) had true post-Lyme syndromes (PLS), category IV, or late Lyme disease (LLD). Most patients had been treated for Lyme: 82/106 (79%). aPL occurs frequently in patients with 'CLD'. IgM anti-β2GP1, IgM aCL and IgM WB were frequently found. Documented PLS or LLD was uncommon. The role of aPL in patients with 'CLD' needs further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Lupus

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Atherosclerosis Supplements
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)/beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) complexes have been implicated in atherogenesis. oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes were measured in 339 patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes. Approximately 68% had angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD) and significantly higher mean + or - SD levels of oxLDL/beta2GPI (3.75 + or - 6.31 U/mL) than patients with normal coronary arteries (2.21 + or - 3.03 U/mL; P = .0026). Patients with severe CAD had significantly higher mean + or - SD levels of oxLDL/beta2GPI (8.71 + or - 12.87 U/mL) compared with the overall mean of 3.25 U/mL (P < .05) and a significantly higher rate (28.9%) of adverse events than the overall rate of 11.2% (P < .05). Patients with adverse events had higher mean + or - SD levels of oxLDL/beta2GPI (4.05 + or - 5.38 U/mL) than patients without adverse events (3.15 + or - 5.53; P = .029). The relative risk for adverse events in higher oxLDL/beta2GPI quartiles was 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-9.1; P = .06) for quartile 3 and 3.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-10.4; P = .02) for quartile 4. Our results support the concept that oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes are associated with severity of CAD and a 3.5-fold increased risk for adverse outcomes.
    No preview · Article · May 2010 · American Journal of Clinical Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) have been implicated in atherogenesis. We studied 344 patients with acute coronary syndromes; approximately 40% were aPL+ in 1 or more tests and 60% aPL-. In 215 patients, coronary artery disease (CAD) was angiographically documented, with 43.7% positive for aPL vs 34.9% of patients without CAD positive for aPLs. Anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI; 54%) and anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)/beta2GPI (48%) were most frequent, accounting for 87% of all aPL+ CAD cases. aPLs correlated with severity of CAD (P = .012). Adverse events occurred in 16.7% of patients with CAD, more frequently in patients who were aPL+ (P = .0006; relative risk, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.6). Patients who were aPL+ with severe CAD had more adverse events than patients who were aPL- with severe CAD (P = .005) and aPL+ patients undergoing revascularization procedures (P = .001). Vascular events occurred in 21.7% of aPL+ patients compared with 7.1% of aPL- patients (P = .005). Anti-beta2GPI and anti-oxLDL/beta2GPI were associated with CAD severity and adverse outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · American Journal of Clinical Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Erythema nodosum is a dermatologic condition characterized by painful, erythematous nodules on the anterior surfaces of the lower extremities. Its association with a variety of conditions has been previously described. We present three cases of erythema nodosum in patients with elevated anticardiolipin antibodies. In one patient, a temporal relationship was seen in the simultaneous detection of antibodies and skin lesions. We propose an association between erythema nodosum and the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS).
    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Lupus
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    ABSTRACT: Testing for the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) using anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) has been problematic. Titers may fluctuate or even become negative. Anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I assays (abeta2-GPI) may be more reliable for diagnosis. In a prospective, blinded study over a nine-month period we retested all patients seen for routine follow-up visits in our clinic who had previously been evaluated for aCL-associated illnesses. Patients were stratified into two groups: group A-patients previously positive for aCL; group B-patients previously negative for aCL. Both groups were further classified according to disease severity. Patients were retested for both aCL and abeta2-GPI (isotypes G, M, A for each) using uniform testing standards. 118 patients with previously positive aCL (group A) were retested. Repeat aCL were positive in 52/118 (44%), abeta2-GPI positive in 69/118 (58%) and 82/118 (69.5%) were positive for one or both assays. In patients with serious organ damage (92% with documented APS), 48.6% were aCL positive, 64% positive for abeta2-GPI, and 75.7% were positive for one or both assays. When only one assay was positive, abeta2-GPI was most frequent (P=0.0096). Overall, IgA abeta2-GPI was the most frequent isotype found (60.9%). On retesting of 73 aCL-negative patients (group B), 9/73 (12%) were aCL positive, 27/73 (36%) were abeta2-GPI positive, with 24/73 (32.9%) having isolated abeta2-GPI. Of those positive for abeta2-GPI, IgA abeta2-GPI was present in 74. 1%. Many of these patients had documented APS. Based on our data, abeta2-GPI assays are superior to aCL assays for diagnosis of APS. The combined use of both assays enhance positive testing results in up to 75% of patients with APS at any stage of illness. ACL negative patients suspected of having APS should be retested for both abeta2-GPI and aCL. IgA abeta2-GPI appears to be the most important isotype detected.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Lupus
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the frequency, clinical, and laboratory features of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) or MS-like illnesses (MSL) among a large, prospectively followed cohort of anti-phospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients. Between 1990 and 1995 patients referred to a university-affiliated rheumatology clinic were prospectively evaluated for aPL based on questionnaires designed to detect aPL-related symptoms and/or a family history of aPL-related illnesses. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed when significant neurological features were present. A subgroup of all patients diagnosed with MS or MSL was identified and their clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings were reviewed. Of 322 patients evaluated for aPL-related symptoms or events, 189 (59%) were positive for at least one class of aPL. Twenty-six of 322 patients (8%) carried a diagnosis of MS or MSL, either at the initial evaluation or during the study period. Twenty-three of the 26 individuals (88%) tested positive for aPL, while the remaining 3 (11%) tested repeatedly negative. Eighteen of the 23 patients (78%) had either more than one class of aPL or had multiple positive titers. IgM aCL was noted in 18 of the 23 patients (78%). Oligoclonal bands were noted in five patients. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and low complement levels were frequently observed. Blinded MRI readings showed lesions consistent with MS in the majority of cases. Clinically, 7 patients had transverse myelitis (TM), while optic neuritis (ON) was present in 8 patients. Most patients had either occult symptoms of rheumatic disease or contributory family histories. None had a defined underlying connective-tissue disease. A substantial number of aPL-positive patients have a concurrent diagnosis of MS or MSL, frequently presenting with elevated IgM aCL, optic neuritis, and transverse myelitis. The anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) should be strongly considered as an alternative diagnosis to MS in these patients.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Lupus
  • TP Greco · AM Conti-Kelly · J Ijdo
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    ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid (aPL) syndrome, or APS,--a cluster of conditions that includes arterial or venous thromboses and thrombocytopenia, as well as recurrent fetal loss associated with elevation of aPL antibody--has been reported to occur 2-5 times more frequently in women than men. Strong familial associations lead to the suspicion that aPL positivity, estimated to be present in 2% of the population, is a heritable trait in some cases. Currently, 2 major categories of the illness are recognized--primary and secondary. Secondary APS may be associated with autoimmune disease, malignancy, infectious disease, or drug-induced states. Two assays, one for lupus anticoagulant antibodies and the other for anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies, are recognized to be the gold standards for serologic diagnosis of the disease. Despite extensive attempts at international standardization of aCL test results, no consensus exists for a value beyond which the test is considered positive. Interestingly, a "dose-effect" relationship for aCL antibody titers has been noted--higher titers of the antibody correlate with increased numbers of thrombotic events. An experimental assay for antibody against beta 2-glycoprotein 1 (beta-2-GP1), a phospholipid-binding protein, may become the most important assay for aPL. Skin findings in APS include livedo reticularis, ulceration, gangrene, or purpura, and, when present, may be the key to diagnosis of this sometimes insidious syndrome. Anticoagulation, usually with warfarin, is the mainstay of therapy, although steroids, immunosuppressive agents, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and plasmapheresis may all be beneficial adjunctive therapy.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Medscape women's health
  • S.Nahum Goldberg · Ann Marie Conti-Kelly · Thomas P. Greco
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and their clinical sequelae in family members of aCL-positive patients. A prospective serologic and clinical evaluation was performed on 23 patients with elevated aCL titers, 87 blood relatives, 18 spouses, and 37 controls. aCL and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were measured and clinical histories were assessed for all probands, relatives, spouses, and controls. Fifty of 87 relatives screened (57%) had evidence of autoantibody production (aCL and/or ANA). Twenty-nine (33%) had positive aCL titers. Twenty were positive for aCL-immunoglobulin (Ig) G, 7 had evidence of both aCL-IgG and aCL-IgM, and an additional 2 were positive for aCL-IgM alone. In contrast, only 1 spouse was aCL-IgG positive. Thirty-two relatives and 1 spouse were ANA positive. All controls were negative for aCL and ANA. Significant differences were noted between relatives and spouses for aCL-IgG (P < 0.00001) and aCL-IgM titers (P < 0.0066), and also between relatives and controls (P < 0.00001 for both). Clinically, 4 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 4 SLE-like diseases, and 8 aCL-associated illnesses (2 premature strokes, 3 recurrent fetal losses, 1 recurrent thrombosis, and 2 cases of thrombocytopenia) were documented in the relatives. All cases were associated with aCL and/or ANA production. ANA, aCL, and clinical events associated with antiphospholipid antibodies occur with increased frequency in relatives, but not spouses of aCL-positive probands. These results suggest that aCL-related illnesses may be familial.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1995 · The American Journal of Medicine
  • R M McLean · T P Greco
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    ABSTRACT: A series of seven patients with the polymyalgia rheumatica-temporal arteritis (PMR-TA) complex is presented, each of whom during the clinical course demonstrated the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACLs). Presenting symptoms consisted of proximal myalgias and stiffness characteristic of PMR in five patients and of visual symptoms and headache suspicious for TA in two patients. Two of the five PMR patients later developed jaw claudication characteristic of TA. Six of the seven cases demonstrated clinical evidence of a vasculopathic process such as a cerebrovascular infarct or a vasculitic syndrome. Previous studies have suggested an association between ACLs and PMR-TA, and this series of patients appears to provide more supporting evidence. Even patients who only manifested PMR symptoms without suggestion of accompanying TA developed vascular complications. An increasing range of symptoms have been recognized in association with ACLs, and the vasculitic syndromes of PMR-TA should be included as a possible association. While this series together with previous studies may suggest that the presence of ACLs in patients with PMR-TA symptoms may serve as a marker for the development of vascular complications, larger longitudinal studies will be necessary in the future.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1995 · Clinical Rheumatology
  • R M McLean · T P Greco

    No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · New England Journal of Medicine

Publication Stats

238 Citations
78.68 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • Waterbury Hospital
      Waterbury, Connecticut, United States
  • 1995-2010
    • Yale University
      • Section of Rheumatology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States