Jean Tichet

Institut inter Régional pour la SAnté, Tours, Centre, France

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Publications (215)1033.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Le travail posté, en particulier lorsqu’il inclut des horaires de nuit, est associé à la dégradation de la santé physique, sociale et psychosociale ainsi que du bien-être. Les déséquilibres alimentaires et la diminution de l’activité physique contribuent aux effets négatifs sur la santé. Notre objectif était de promouvoir un meilleur équilibre nutritionnel suivant les recommandations du Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS).
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · La Presse Médicale
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    ABSTRACT: L’efficacité d’une intervention de prévention du diabète en collaboration avec le médecin traitant et basée sur les recommandations du Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) a été évaluée. Les participants hyperglycémiques, âgés de 25–69 ans, recrutés lors d’un examen de prévention en 2005–2007, ont bénéficié d’un entretien diététique avec définition d’objectifs nutritionnels, rappel de ces objectifs à 6 mois, puis évaluation à 1 an. Une réduction des facteurs de risque biométriques et biologiques était associée au gain d’une recommandation PNNS.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Médecine des Maladies Métaboliques
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    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of an intervention for prevention of diabetes in collaboration with the participants' general practitioners and based on the recommendations from the French National Nutrition and Health Program (PNNS), was evaluated. Participants with impaired fasting glucose aged 25-69 years recruited during a medical check-up in 2005-2007 had a dietary interview with goals setting, reminder letter at 6-months and an evaluation after 1 year. Most of the biological and biometrical risk factors improved with the gain of one PNNS recommendation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Médecine des Maladies Métaboliques
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    ABSTRACT: To determine full blood count (FBC) normal reference values for adults. FBC normal values for healthy adults were defined, after establishing preanalytical conditions, in a population of 33 258 subjects, 19 612 men and 13 646 women. The values were established after excluding from this population all people having conditions liable to modify, directly or indirectly, FBC parameters. Results for values of standard parameters are provided in detail for each parameter, by sex and by age group from 16 to 69 years of age. In addition, we present FBC values from a population of 339 subjects aged over 69 years with no comorbidities. These normal values are proposed for use in everyday practice. They make it possible to distinguish, without ambiguity, a normal situation from a pathological situation. Moreover, they might be used over all mainland France.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of clinical pathology

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
  • G. Gusto · S. Vol · N. Copin · M. Bedouet · O. Lantieri · J. Tichet

    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
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    ABSTRACT: Association between deprivation and health is well established, particularly among unemployed or fixed-term contract or temporary contract subjects. This study aimed to assess if this relationship existed as well in full-time permanent workers. Biometrical, biological, behavioural and psychosocial health risk indicators and an individual deprivation score, the Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centres score, were recorded from January 2007 to June 2008, in 34 905 full-time permanent workers aged 18-70 years, all volunteers for a free health examination. Comparisons of the behavioural, metabolic, cardiovascular and health risk indicators between quintiles of the deprivation score with adjustments on age and socioeconomic categories were made by covariance analysis or logistic regression. For both genders, degradation of nutritional behaviours, metabolic and cardiovascular indicators and health appeared gradually with deprivation, even for deprivation score usually considered as an insignificant value. The absence of only one social support or one social network was associated with a degradation of health. Full-time permanent workers with the poorest health risk indicators had more frequent social exclusion signs. These results were independent of socioeconomic categories and age. Understanding how deprivation influences health status may lead to more effective interventions to reduce social inequalities in health. The deprivation Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centres score is a relevant tool to detect subjects who could benefit from preventive interventions. Our findings suggest that this deprivation score should be used as a health risk indicator even in full-time permanent workers. Assessing deprivation is useful to design and evaluate specific intervention programmes.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · The European Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Objectifs Étudier la reproductibilité et la validité d’un auto-questionnaire simple (NAQAPNNS) en langue française permettant d’évaluer l’adhésion d’un sujet aux repères du Programme National Nutrition Santé. Méthodes La reproductibilité a été évaluée à l’aide du test kappa pondéré chez 48 sujets recrutés dans les services administratifs du siège de l’Institut inter Régional pour la Santé à Tours âgés de 21 à 63 ans ayant rempli deux fois l’auto-questionnaire NAQAPNNS à deux semaines d’intervalle. La validité a été évaluée chez 524 sujets hyperglycémiques (glycémie à jeun entre 1,10 g/L et 1,25 g/L) âgés de 25 à 70 ans par rapport à la technique de l’histoire alimentaire de 7 jours à l’aide du test de Kruskall–Wallis. L’accord entre l’auto-administration du questionnaire et l’interrogatoire diététique a été évalué à l’aide du test kappa pondéré. Résultats La reproductibilité était « bonne » (kappa ≥ 0,67) pour tous les repères à l’exception de ceux portant sur la consommation de féculents (kappa = 0,50) et de produits sucrés (kappa = 0,54) pour lesquels elle était seulement « satisfaisante ». Pour chaque repère, les apports nutritionnels étaient plus proches des apports conseillés pour ceux atteignant le repère (p < 0,03). L’accord entre l’auto-administration du questionnaire et l’interrogatoire était « bon » (kappa ≥ 0,63) pour tous les repères à l’exception de ceux portant sur la consommation de matières grasses ajoutées (kappa = 0,41) et de sel (kappa = 0,50) pour lesquels il était seulement « satisfaisant ». Conclusion L’auto-questionnaire NAQAPNNS est un outil fiable permettant d’évaluer l’adhésion d’un sujet aux repères nationaux de consommation. Il peut être utilisé en pratique courante ou lors d’études épidémiologiques pour identifier les sujets ayant un déséquilibre alimentaire et nécessitant une prise en charge. Ce qui était connu•La mise en place d’une stratégie nationale d’information et d’orientation de la population vers des choix alimentaires satisfaisants (Programme National Nutrition Santé [PNNS]).•Les baromètres santé nutrition (INPES) et les enquêtes nationales (INCA, ENNS) rapportent un pourcentage d’atteinte des repères PNNS obtenu par des méthodes plus précises de quantification mais qui nécessitent un investissement (humain, matériel et financier) plus lourd.Ce qu’apporte l’article•Un auto-questionnaire simple permettant d’évaluer l’atteinte ou non de chacun des repères du PNNS.•Un logiciel complémentaire spécifique permettant la saisie du questionnaire avec édition immédiate d’un compte rendu personnalisé avec possibilité d’une évaluation statistique sur un groupe.•Un outil validé et peu onéreux utilisable en pratique courante et dans des études épidémiologiques.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · La Presse Médicale
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To study the reproducibility and validity of a French self-administered questionnaire (NAQAPNNS) evaluating the adequation of a subject with the French national nutrition and health program recommendations. METHODS: The reproducibility was estimated by weighted kappa in 48 subjects working in the administrative departments of the head office of the Institut Inter Régional pour la Santé in Tours aged from 21 to 63 years who filled the questionnaire NAQAPNNS twice with a two weeks interval. The validity was assessed in 524 hyperglycaemic subjects (fasting plasma glucose between 1.10g/l and 1.25g/l) aged from 25 to 70 years against a seven-day dietary recall using the Kruskall-Wallis test. Agreement between self-administration of the questionnaire and dietetic interview was evaluated by weighted kappa. RESULTS: The reproducibility was "good" (kappa≥0.67) except for recommendations on breads, cereals, potatoes and legumes (kappa=0.50) and sweetened foods consumption (kappa=0.54) which showed only "satisfactory" reproducibility. For each recommendation, subjects who reached it had dietary intakes closer to dietary references intakes (P<0.03). The agreement between self-administration and dietetic interview was "good" (kappa≥0.63) except for recommendations on added fats (kappa=0.41) and salt (kappa=0.50) consumption which were only "satisfactory". DISCUSSION: The NAQAPNNS questionnaire is a consistent and reproducible tool to evaluate adequation of a subject with French national nutritional recommendations. CONCLUSION: The self-administered questionnaire NAQAPNNS can be used in clinical practice or in epidemiological studies to detect subjects with a food imbalance and needing specific care.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · La Presse Médicale
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the cardiovascular risk factors strongly associated with obesity and overweight vary with age and gender. However, few reference values are available for healthy European children. Our objective was to establish pediatric reference ranges for waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting lipid levels (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides), glucose, and insulin. A representative sample of 1976 healthy French individuals (1004 female participants and 972 male participants) aged 7 to 20 years was used to obtain age- and gender-specific normal ranges for each of the above-listed cardiovascular risk factors, based on the Royston and Wright method. Mean waist circumference increased with age in both genders and was slightly higher in males than in females. Whereas systolic blood pressure increased gradually with age, with the increase being steeper in males than in females, no gender effect was found for diastolic blood pressure, which was therefore modeled after pooling males and females. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride values varied little with age and gender. Glucose and insulin levels revealed pubertal peaks, which were sharper in females than in males, reflecting the normal insulin resistance during puberty. These ranges can be used as references for European children to monitor cardiovascular risk factors and to plan interventions and education programs.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · PEDIATRICS
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = 4.5×10(-8)-1.2×10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N = 4,232 African Americans, N = 1,776 Asians, and N = 29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p = 4.3×10(-3), n = 22,044), increased triglycerides (p = 2.6×10(-14), n = 93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 1.8×10(-5), n = 77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p = 4.4×10(-3), n = 15,234), increased fasting insulin (p = 0.015, n = 48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p = 4.5×10(-13), n = 96,748) and decreased BMI (p = 1.4×10(-4), n = 121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · PLoS Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = 4.5x10(-8)-1.2x10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N = 4,232 African Americans, N = 1,776 Asians, and N = 29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3x10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p = 4.3x10(-3), n = 22,044), increased triglycerides (p = 2.6x10(-14), n = 93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 1.8x10(-5), n = 77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p = 4.4x10(-3), n = 15,234), increased fasting insulin (p = 0.015, n = 48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p = 4.5x10(-13), n = 96,748) and decreased BMI (p = 1.4x10(-4), n = 121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = 4.5x10(-8)-1.2x10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N = 4,232 African Americans, N = 1,776 Asians, and N = 29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3x10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and disease
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = 4.5x10(-8)-1.2x10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N = 4,232 African Americans, N = 1,776 Asians, and N = 29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3x10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p = 4.3x10(-3), n = 22,044), increased triglycerides (p = 2.6x10(-14), n = 93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 1.8x10(-5), n = 77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p = 4.4x10(-3), n = 15,234), increased fasting insulin (p = 0.015, n = 48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p = 4.5x10(-13), n = 96,748) and decreased BMI (p = 1.4x10(-4), n = 121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Essential hypertension is a multifactorial disorder and is the main risk factor for renal and cardiovascular complications. The research on the genetics of hypertension has been frustrated by the small predictive value of the discovered genetic variants. The HYPERGENES Project investigated associations between genetic variants and essential hypertension pursuing a 2-stage study by recruiting cases and controls from extensively characterized cohorts recruited over many years in different European regions. The discovery phase consisted of 1865 cases and 1750 controls genotyped with 1M Illumina array. Best hits were followed up in a validation panel of 1385 cases and 1246 controls that were genotyped with a custom array of 14 055 markers. We identified a new hypertension susceptibility locus (rs3918226) in the promoter region of the endothelial NO synthase gene (odds ratio: 1.54 [95% CI: 1.37-1.73]; combined P=2.58 · 10(-13)). A meta-analysis, using other in silico/de novo genotyping data for a total of 21 714 subjects, resulted in an overall odds ratio of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.25-1.44; P=1.032 · 10(-14)). The quantitative analysis on a population-based sample revealed an effect size of 1.91 (95% CI: 0.16-3.66) for systolic and 1.40 (95% CI: 0.25-2.55) for diastolic blood pressure. We identified in silico a potential binding site for ETS transcription factors directly next to rs3918226, suggesting a potential modulation of endothelial NO synthase expression. Biological evidence links endothelial NO synthase with hypertension, because it is a critical mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis and blood pressure control via vascular tone regulation. This finding supports the hypothesis that there may be a causal genetic variation at this locus.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Hypertension
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    ABSTRACT: Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a bespoke gene-centric array to genotype an independent discovery sample of 25,118 individuals that combined hypertensive case-control and general population samples. We followed up four SNPs associated with BP at our p < 8.56 × 10(-7) study-specific significance threshold and six suggestively associated SNPs in a further 59,349 individuals. We identified and replicated a SNP at LSP1/TNNT3, a SNP at MTHFR-NPPB independent (r(2) = 0.33) of previous reports, and replicated SNPs at AGT and ATP2B1 reported previously. An analysis of combined discovery and follow-up data identified SNPs significantly associated with BP at p < 8.56 × 10(-7) at four further loci (NPR3, HFE, NOS3, and SOX6). The high number of discoveries made with modest genotyping effort can be attributed to using a large-scale yet targeted genotyping array and to the development of a weighting scheme that maximized power when meta-analyzing results from samples ascertained with extreme phenotypes, in combination with results from nonascertained or population samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript expression data highlight potential gene regulatory mechanisms at the MTHFR and NOS3 loci. These results provide candidates for further study to help dissect mechanisms affecting BP and highlight the utility of studying SNPs and samples that are independent of those studied previously even when the sample size is smaller than that in previous studies.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Updating Baecke physical activity questionnaire in French, validating this version named AQAP and developing software for a personalized interpretation of the results. Validation conducted on 702 consultants in health prevention centers aged 18-79 years: reliability of the questionnaire when self-administered, validity according to the energy expenditure per interview and reproducibility after two weeks (n=31). After two months, assessment of the questionnaire's impact on knowledge and behaviors in 320 young adults aged 18-29 years. The results from self- and interviewer-administered questionnaire were correlated (Kappa>0.60). Furthermore, the total physical activity index was correlated to the energy expenditure (rho=0.39, P<0.0001). The four physical activity indexes calculated from self-administrated questionnaires barely varied at the two-week interval (P ≥ 0.23, power ≥ 77%, accepted difference ± 10%). Two months later, 80% of the participants had read the interpretation software report, 55% became conscious of their physical activity level, 43% increased their physical activity level and 42% reported being aware of the relationship between physical activity and health. AQAP characteristics are satisfactory and thus this questionnaire can be used on the general population in complement of an individual or collective action to promote physical activity and in epidemiological studies for analyzing the links between individual behaviors and health.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine
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    ABSTRACT: HbA(1C) is being used for screening and diagnosing diabetes. We determined mean values of HbA(1C) according to age and sex in a large population without known diabetes, in a wide age range 6-79  years. 5,138 men and women without known diabetes aged 6-79  years participated in a routine health examination provided by their medical insurance. HbA(1C) was assessed on an HPLC analyzer aligned with a DCCT method. HbA(1C) was approximately normally distributed in both men and women. Mean (SD) HbA(1C) were, for men vs women, in percentages 5.3 (0.4) vs 5.2 (0.3), in mmol/mol 34 (5) vs 34 (4) and in estimated blood glucose in mmol/L 5.83 (0.67) vs 5.75 (0.53). HbA(1C) increased with age by 0.08% every 10  years and this was attenuated to a 0.04% increase after adjustment on fasting plasma glucose. Between 15 and 49  years, women had lower values than men (p < 0.0001), but no sex differences were observed before and after this age range. In our population, 0.6% had HbA(1C) greater or equal to 6.5% and 88% (96% of men and 73% of women) of them had fasting plasma glucose greater or equal to 6,1 mmol/L. Threshold of 6.0% selected 2.8% of our population.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Annales de biologie clinique
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    ABSTRACT: A reference model for converting serum growth factor and bone metabolism markers into an SD score (SDS) is required for clinical practice. We aimed to establish reference values of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) concentrations and bone metabolism markers in French children, to generate a model for converting values into SDS for age, sex, and pubertal stage. We carried out a cross-sectional study of 1119 healthy white children ages 6-20 years. We assessed concentrations of serum IGF-1, IGFBP-3, carboxyterminal telopeptide α1 chain of type I collagen (CrossLaps), and bone alkaline phosphatase concentrations and height, weight, and pubertal stage, and used semiparametric regression to develop a model. A single regression model to calculate the SDSs with an online calculator was provided. A positive relationship was found between SDS for serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, IGF/IGFBP-3 mol/L ratio, and anthropometric parameters (P < 0.0001), with slightly greater effects observed for height than for body mass index (BMI). There was a negative relationship between serum CrossLaps concentration and BMI, and a positive relationship between serum CrossLaps concentration and height. A comparison of serum IGF-1 reference databases for children showed marked variation as a function of age and pubertal group; smooth changes with age and puberty were observed only in our model. This new model for the assessment of SDS reference values specific for age, sex, and pubertal stage may help to increase the diagnostic power of these parameters for the assessment of growth and bone metabolism disorders. This study also provides information about the physiological role of height and BMI for the interpretation of these parameters.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Clinical Chemistry

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,033.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990-2015
    • Institut inter Régional pour la SAnté
      Tours, Centre, France
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2012
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 1992-2009
    • Institut de France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1997-2006
    • University of Tours
      Tours, Centre, France
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2000
    • University of Angers
      Angers, Pays de la Loire, France
  • 1993-2000
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Tours
      Tours, Centre, France
  • 1995
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France