[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parvatrema chaii n. sp. (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) is described using the worms recovered from experimentally infected mice in Korea. The metacercariae were collected from surf-clams, Mactra veneriformis, from a tidal flat in Sochon-gun, Chungchongnam-do. The metacercariae were elliptical (0.262 x 0.132 mm), and the genital pore had an anterior arch of 16-17 sensory papillae in scanning electron microscopic view. Adult worms were ovoid to foliate (0.275-0.303 by 0.140-0.150 mm), and their characteristic features included the presence of lateral lips, short esophagus, genital pore located some distance anterior to the ventral sucker, club-shaped seminal vesicle, a compact to slightly lobed vitellarium, elliptical eggs (0.018-0.020 by 0.010-0.013 mm), and absence of the ventral pit. This gymnophallid is classified as a member of the genus Parvatrema because of the location of the wide genital pore some distance from the ventral sucker, and the absence of the ventral pit. It differs from previously reported Parvatrema species, including the type species, P. borinquenae. In particular, the morphologies of the vitellarium and the genital pore with an anterior arch of 16-17 sensory papillae are unique features. Therefore, we propose it as a new species, Parvatrema chaii n. sp. (Digenea: Gymnophallidae).
Preview · Article · Jul 2007 · The Korean Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A survey of the infection rate of Enterobius vermicularis among students in 4 primary schools located in Gangwon-do (Province) was done from May to June 2001. Among the 398 examinees, 39 (9.8%) were infected with E. vermicularis demonstrated by the adhesive cellotape anal swab method. The infection rates ranged from 8.3% to 11.8% among the four schools. The infection rate of males and females was 10.7% and 7.7% respectively. The first grade students showed the highest infection rate, 28.7%. The confirmed cases were treated with albendazole three times at an interval of 15 days. We were able to confirm that E. vermicularis infection is still prevalent among students in Gangwon-do, Korea.
Preview · Article · Jan 2002 · The Korean Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether avian species are susceptible to infection with Gymnophalloides seoi (a human-infecting intestinal trematode), we exposed 7 species of birds with metacercariae obtained from oysters. The birds were necropsied at days 2, 4, and 6 postinfection (PI). The highest worm recovery at day 6 PI was obtained from the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus; mean = 56.0%), followed by the Mongolian plover (C. mongolus; 49.3%), and the grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola; 32.3%). In contrast, no mature worms were recovered from the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris), dunlin (C. alpina), black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Among the plovers, the worms attained the greatest size at day 6 PI (254.1 x 190.4 microm) in the Kentish plover, with a significantly higher number of eggs in the uterus. The 3 species of plovers are highly susceptible to experimental G. seoi infection, suggesting that they could play a role as definitive hosts for these worms in nature.
No preview · Article · May 2001 · Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucosal mast cell (MMC) responses and worm recovery rates in rats infected with Echinostoma hortense were investigated from day 3 to day 56 post-infection (p.i.). Experimental infected group showed apparently higher number of MMC in each part of the small intestine than that of the control group. The number of MMC in the duodenum increased gradually after the infection and reached a peak on day 35 p.i. Thereafter, the number of MMC continued to decrease at a slow pace. The kinetics of MMC responses in the upper and lower jejunum were similar to that of the duodenum, but the number of MMC in the jejunum was lower. The worm recovery rate decreased with respect to time of which it was markedly reduced on day 49 and 56 p.i. The duration in which a high number of MMC appeared was similar to that in which a low rate in worm recovery was recorded. These results indicate that intestinal mastocytosis may play an important role in the expulsion of E. hortense.
Preview · Article · Oct 2000 · The Korean Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to verify the role of migrating birds as natural definitive hosts for Gymnophalloides seoi (Gymnophallidae), Palearctic oystercatchers, Haematopus ostralegus, were caught from several western coastal areas in the Republic of Korea and examined for intestinal flukes. Five (71.4%) of 7 oystercatchers were infected with 302-1,660 (mean 892) adult G. seoi. In intestinal sections of the host, worms were found in the intervillous space of the mucosal layer. We conclude that the oystercatcher is a natural definitive host for G. seoi.
No preview · Article · May 2000 · Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of human infection with Heterophyes nocens (Heterophyidae) was incidentally found in a biopsy specimen of the Meckel's diverticulum at the upper part of the small intestine. The patient was a 58-year-old man living in a rural area of Talsonggun, Kyongsangbuk-do. He had gastrointestinal symptoms such as epigastric pain, indigestion, and abdominal discomfort for 3 months, and severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting for about 1 month before hospitalization. Endoscopy of the upper part of the small intestine revealed a Meckel's diverticulum, and it was excised and histopathologically examined. Three adult flukes were incidentally found sectioned in the mucosa, and they were identified as H. nocens. The patient had a history of eating raw mullets at a fish market in Pusan 6 months ago, and the mullets were presumed to be the source of infection. This case brings a considerable interest in that specific diagnosis of heterophyid infections could be done by sectional morphology of the worms.
Preview · Article · Oct 1999 · The Korean Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An epidemiological survey was performed to know the infection status of oysters with Gymnophalloides seoi metacercariae in 7 islands of the West Sea known as the habitat of paleartic oystercatchers, Haematopus ostralegus osculans, in Korea. The surveyed areas were Aphaedo (Shinan-gun, Chollanam-do), Jangjado, Sonyudo and Munyodo (Okdo-myon, Kunsan-shi, Chollabuk-do), Yubudo (Changhang-up, Sochon-gun Chungchongnam-do), and Polumdo and Chumoondo (Sodo-myon, Kangwha-gun. Inchonshi). The oysters collected from Aphaedo, the known endemic focus, were examined monthly from August 1995 to October 1996 for observation of any seasonal variation of the metacercarial density. The average metacercarial burden was 761-2,077 by month, but the seasonal variation of the metacercarial density was not obvious. A total of 54 metacercariae was detected in 63 oysters collected from Yubudo. Out of 30 oysters from Sonyudo, 25 (83.3%) were infected with 1-66 metacercariae (12.6 in average). All of 50 oysters (100%) from Munyodo were infected with 3-162 metacercariae (53.5 in average). Only 4 metacercariae were detected in 100 oysters from Chumoondo. However, no metacercariae were found in 55 oysters from Jangjado and 50 oysters from Polumdo. From the above results, it was confirmed that G. seoi is still highly prevalent in oysters from Aphaedo, and several islands of the West Sea known as the habitats of paleartic oystercatchers are new endemic areas of this fluke.
Preview · Article · Oct 1998 · The Korean Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two rare cases of human infection with parvum (dwarf) type of Diphyllobothrium latum [syn. D. parvum (Stephens, 1908)], were discovered in Korea. The first case was a 46-year old housewife, from whom a kind of pseudophyllidean tapeworm eggs was detected in the feces. She was treated with praziquantel and purged, and a complete strobila with scolex, 120 cm in total length, was recovered. She recalled that she had eaten raw trouts at a raw-fish restaurant near the Chungju Lake. Another patient was a 22-year old medical student (male), who used to eat raw sea-foods. He discovered a chain of tapeworm proglottids, 15 cm in length, discharged spontaneously in his stool and brought it for identification. The worms from the two cases were compatible with D. parvum (Stephens, 1908) of which the taxonomic significance has long been questioned. After a detailed morphological study and review of literature, we designated the worms as D. latum parvum type. This is the first report on the occurrence of this rare type of D. latum infection in Korea.
Full-text · Article · Jul 1994 · The Korean Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We surveyed 12 migrating large egrets, Egretta alba modesta, for their infection status with intestinal trematodes, from June to September, 1990. All of them were infected with one or more flukes. Total 5 species were identified. Their infection rates and total numbers of worms were Metagonimus sp. 67% and 1,412, Centrocestus armatus 67% and 2,306, Echinochasmus japonicus 50% and 99, Strigea falconis 83% and 635, and a diplostomid fluke 33% and 36. The number of worms in a bird was in the range from 6 to 896. This is the first record that the egret is a reservoir host of Metagonimus sp., C. armatus, E. japonicus, and S. falconis. S. falconis is a new parasite fauna in Korea. Migrating birds must play an important role in the transmission and spreading of these intestinal trematodes in Korea.
Preview · Article · Oct 1991 · The Korean Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was performed to know the epidemiological status of echinostomiasis in the Chungju Reservoir and upper streams of Namhan River, together with an experimental study on the life history of Echinostoma hortense. The stool specimens of 169 inhabitants and 473 junior high school students from 5 different villages revealed 3 (0.5%) echinostomatid egg positive cases. E. hortense adult worms were recovered from one patient after a treatment and purgation. For the other two patients, it was presumed that one had E. hortense and another E. cinetorchis infection, based on the morphology of eggs. Five kinds of freshwater snails (168 Radix auricularia coreana, 534 Physa acuta, 144 Hippeutis cantori, 56 Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata and 125 Semisulcospira nodifila globus) examined for the cercariae of echinostomes showed negative results. Ten kinds of freshwater fishes examined for E. hortense metacercariae revealed positive rates as Misgurnus anguillicaudatus 40.5%, Odontobutis obscura interrupta 20.3%, Moroco oxycephalus 3.9%, and Coreoperca kawamebari 2.0%. In the experimental study, the metacercariae of E. hortense were infected to rats, eggs were collected from adult worms and cultivated, and miracidia were obtained. The miracidia were artificially infected to freshwater snails (R. auricularia), and cercarial shedding was studied. It was revealed that, when the snails were kept at a low temperature (24 degrees C), only 523 cercariae (on average) were produced during 24 hrs, while they were at a high temperature (30 degrees C), as many as 9,990 cercariae (on average) were shed during the same time. The experimental infection of E. hortense cercariae to freshwater fishes was successful in O. obscura interrupta 52.0%, M. anguillicaudatus 30.3%, C. kawamebari 27.0%, Cobitis lutheri 15.0%, M. oxycephalus 7.3%, Pseudogobio esocinus 4.3%, Squalidus coreanus 2.0%, Zacco platypus 1.3%, and Pungtungia herzi 1.3%. However, infection was not successful to snails, C. chinensis. It has been proved that the Chungju Reservoir and upper streams of Namhan river are endemic areas of echinostomiasis, especially of E. hortense, and snails such as R. auricularia coreana and fishes such as O. obscura interrupta, M. anguillicaudatus, and others are taking the role of first and second intermediate hosts, respectively.
Preview · Article · Jan 1991 · The Korean Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of Echinostoma cinetorchis in several snail species reared in laboratory aquaria was observed. The eggs from adult flukes collected from the intestine of rats were cultivated to miracidia, and exposed to Hippeutis sp. snails. Observations were made for cercarial shedding from the exposed snails. The cercariae shed from the snails were again exposed to several species of fresh water snails in order to observe metacercarial formation in the snails and their infectivity to final hosts. The results obtained in this study were as follows: 1. Twenty miracidia were exposed to each snail of Hippeutis sp. About 58.3% of the above snails (7 out of 12) were dead before shedding the cercariae, and the remainder shed the cercariae for a period of 7 to 9 days before death. 2. Cercarial shedding from the infected snails started from the 25th day after the exposure to miracidia, and the total number of cercariae shed per snail was 684 in average (range; 482-904). 3. The size of rediae developed in the infected Hippeutis sp. snails was 1,242 x 214 microns in average, and the number of rediae per snail was 350 in average (range; 120-510). 4. About 40 to 50 cercariae shed from the Hippeutis sp. snails were each exposed to several species of snails reared in the laboratory. The metacercarial formation was confirmed by dissecting the infected snails, 12 to 16 days after the infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Preview · Article · Oct 1989 · The Korean Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Hongcheon river system flows down through the Hongcheon area of Kangwon-do, and reaches to the Cheongpyeong Dam in Kyonggi-do. Stool specimens from the inhabitants residing along the Hongcheon river basin were examined to detect infection rate of Metagonimus sp., and the intermediate hosts were collected to detect larval stages. The results obtained were as follows: Thirty-nine (33 males and 6 females) out of 529 (314 males and 215 females) inhabitants were infected with Metagonimus sp., showing a total positive rate of 7.4 per cent. In eight areas surveyed, the specimens from Kulji-ri of Bukbang-myon at the middle part of the river showed the highest positive rate of 26.9 per cent (14 positives out of 52) (males; 38.2 per cent). The specimens from Mogog-ri of Seo-myon at the downstream of the river showed a positive rate of 10.4 per cent (13 positives out of 125) (males;12.6 per cent). The positive rates in other regions were less than 10 per cent. The density of the first intermediate host, Semisulcospira sp., was the highest in Kulji-ri of Bukbang-myon (10-20 snails per m(2)), and the infection rate of Metagonimus cercariae in the snails was 10.7 per cent(13 positives out of 121 snails). The infection rate of Metagonimus metacercariae in Zacco platypus, the fresh water fish favorably eaten raw by the inhabitants, was 68.2 per cent (30 positives out of 44 fishes), and most metacercariae were detected under the scales (89.9 per cent). Adult flukes were obtained from the small intestine of a rat, 15 days after infection with the metacercariae obtained from Z. platypus. These adult flukes were identified to be the same srecies as those obtained from human hosts. By this survey, new endemic areas of Metagonimus infection were discovered along the Hongcheon river basin and the main source of infection was the fresh water fish, Z. platypus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the infection status of Enterobius vermicularis the author tried surveys by scotch-tape anal swap on school-children and household environmental factors considered to have influences on the infection were analyzed by an inquiry method with questionnaire. The survey was carried out in October 1986 and 1988 in urban and suburban areas and the results could summarized as follow: The egg positive rate in anal swab was 16.0 per cent (male 14.5 per cent, female 17.6 per cent) out of 2,156 school-children and higher in female group. The egg positive rate in suburban school-children (17.5 per cent out of 1,305 children of two primary school)was a little higher than that of urban school-children(13.6 per cent out of 851 children of one primary schools). The questionnaire analysis on environmental factors showed some significant relations between the egg positive rate and such factors as the number of brothers and sisters, householder's occupation, and avalibility of childroom or bathroom. The result indicate that, although enterobiasis in school-children has shown decreasing tendency in Korea, it is still considerably high in some urban and suburban areas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently there have been some reports on human infections of Echinostoma hortense in Korea. It was found that a few species of freshwater fishes were playing the role of the second intermediate host of E. hortense. However, molluscan intermediate host has not been identified yet in Korea. The present study aimed to establish the life cycle of E. hortense in laboratory. Experimental studies such as egg production from the rat, development of the eggs in vitro, exposure of miracidia to freshwater snails, shedding pattern of cercariae from infected snails, morphology of cercariae, cercarial infection to the second intermediate host and infection of metacercariae to the difinitive hosts were done. In addition, epidemiological surveys on the infection status in inhabitants and house rats, and on the natural infection of larval echinostomes in the snails and fishes were carried out along the South Hangang-river. The results obtained were as follows: The eggs deposited from adults in physiological saline were cultivated at room temperature (20-24C). The miracidia were firstly observed on 8 days after cultivation, and 85.5 per cent of the eggs contained the mature miracidia on 11 days after cultivation. More than 90 per cent formed the miracidia when cultivated at temperature 22-27C. Hatching of the miracidia began on 12 days after cultivation and continued for a week. The size of the miracidia was 103.0 x 51.4 micrometer in average. The motility of miracidia were active up to 8 hours after shedding, but they were all dead within 10 hours after shedding. A freshwater snail, Radix auricularia coreana was cultivated in aquaria. A hatched F1 snails from the egg masses were exposed to 20 miracidia respectively. Escape of cercariae started on 15 days after infection. Radix auricularia coreana was experimentally identified as the first intermediate host of E. hortense in Korea. Cercarial shedding started on 15-20 days after infection by snail, continued for about 10 days (8.8 days in average). Infected snails were dead within 32 days after the miracidial infection. About 1,335 cercariae (328-1,994) per snail were shed in its life, and 119 cercariae in average per snail per day were shed. The cercariae were motile for more than 24 hours, and then squirming at the bottom until death. The body and tail sizes of cercariae were 356 x 186 micrometer and 510 x 68 micrometer in average, respectively. The rediae parasitized in the snail hosts were found mainly around the pericardial regions, and their size was 1,575 x 258 micrometer in average. The numbers of developing cercariae in a mature redia were 14 in average (7-20 in range). The numbers of rediae in a snail were 102 in average on 15 days after miracidial infection and 221 in average on 28 days. Three uninfected Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, less than 6.5 cm long were used in for the cercaria1 infection. They were all exposed with 755 cercariae, and examined at 5-day intervals starting from 10 days after infection. All the fihes were infected with metacercariae of E. hortense and a total of 275 was found infected (36.4 per cent). The metacercariae were fed to rats and the adult worms were obtained on 15 days after infection. The infected rats began to deposit the eggs on 11 days after infection. The number of eggs deposited per day per worm (EPD/worm) was 400-500 on 3 weeks after infection and was increased to 1,000-1,500 on 4 to 17 weeks, then decreased to 800 on 2l weeks after infection. A total of 745 stool specimens collected from 576 male and 169 female residents of 8 different villages along South Hangang basin was examined. Out of 745 specimens, the eggs of Echinostoma sp. were found in 2 cases (0.3 per cent). Of 34 house rats one showed egg-positive (2.9 per cent). Total 971 Radix auricularia coreana collected from 7 sampling stations were examined for shedding of cercariae. Three snails (0.3 per cent) shed the cercariae of E. hortense. A total of 119 out of 542 freshwater fishes (22.0 per cent) had the metacercariae of E. hortense. The fishes parasitized with the metacercariae were 4 out of 14 examined species. The infection rate of 4 species were 34.1 per cent (106 out of 311) in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, 30.4 per cent 7 out of 23) in Misgurnus mizolepis, 4.3 per cent (2 out of 46) in Moroco oxycephalus and 22.2 per cent (4 out of 18) in Odontobutis obscura interrupta. In summarizing the above results, the first intermediate host of E. hortense was found as Radix auricularia coreana in Korea. Also it took about 46 days for the shortest completion of a life cycle of E. hortense in summer; that is, 10 days for miracidial development in eggs, 15 days for cercarial development in the snail, about 10 days for metacercarial development in the second intermediate hosts, 11 days for the maturation as the adults in the definitive hosts. The natural infection rates of E. hortense in the intermediate hosts were relatively high but those in the definitive hosts were low in the middle areas of South Hangang basin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eggs of Echinostoma sp. were found from two patients who were hospitalized between Oct. and Dec. 1985. Single dose of 10 mg/kg of praziquantel was prescribed to each patient and after purgation with magnesium salt seven and two adult worms of Echinostoma cinetorchis in respect were recovered from patients. The first case was a 54-year-old male residing at Chungju city in Chungbuk province. He was hospitalized because of severe weight loss and frequent urination. The second case was a 71-year-old male residing at Chungsun-kun in Kangwon province, and hospitalized due to suspected lung cancer. The average size of the eggs found in the stools was 98 x 63 micrometer (the first case) and 100 x 67 micrometer (the second case) respectively, and total nine worms collected were identified as E. cinetorchis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metacercariae of an echinostomatid fluke were detected from a freshwater fish, Odontobutis obscura interrupta caught from the Seom river system, Wonseong-gun, Kangwon-do, and experimenally infected into rats to obtain the adult worms for the species identification. A total of 32 metacercariae was detected from 10 fishes (27.8 percent) out of 36 O. obscura interrupta caught from the river. The average size of metacercariae was 153.4 x 149.0 micrometer. Also, it was uniquely specific that thickened membrane was formed around the metacercarial cyst wall. The rats orally infected with those metacercariae were sacrificed 20 days after infection to get the adult worms. The mean length and width of the adult worms were 0.75 cm and 0.13 cm, respectively. The number of collar spines on circumoral disk was 26 to 28, and the end group spines at lateral sides of the oral sucker were 4 on each side. The echinostomatid flukes observed in this study were all identified as Echinostoma hortense according to the morphologies of the cirrus sac, ovary, vitellaria and testes of the adult worms and the shape of eggs. On the other hand, O. obscura interrupta is one of the fresh-water fish that are preferably eaten raw by the rural inhabitants. Although no human case of E. hortense infection by eating O. obscura interrupta has been experienced yet, the possibility is strongly suggested in this study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two cases of human Echinostoma hortense infection and their probable infection source were identified by praziqantel (Distocide) treatment of the patients and by examining two kinds of fresh water fish which were eaten raw by them. The result of the research can be summarized as follows: The patients, each aged 31 and 30, were residing in the same house in Wonju City, Kangwon Province. The first case was hospitalized due to epidemic hemorrhagic fever (E.H. fever) and the second case was healthy but had slight degree of abdominal pain and diarrhea from time to time. In the stool examination, eggs of E. hortense (114.3 x 71.0 micrometer average from the first case and 119.1 x 68.3 micrometer average from the second) were found. By administering single dose of praziquantel (10~15 mg/kg) and purgation with magnesium salt to them, six adults of E. hortense were collected from the diarrheal stools of the second case. By examining 84 Moroco oxycephalus and 20 Carassius carassius which were captured at the place where the two patients had captured and eaten the fresh water fish, the metacercariae of Echinostoma sp. were found from 3 (3.5 percent) M. oxycephalus. After the experimental infection of 3 isolated metacercariae to one albino rat three adults of E. hortense were recovered. By the present study, the two patients revealing the echinostomatid eggs in their stools were proven to be infected with E. hortense and to be the second and third human cases of this fluke infection in Korea. Moroco oxycephalus harboured the metacercariae of E. hortense and appeared to be a new second intermediate host.