[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have demonstrated that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with aberrant sensitivity to rewards and punishments. Although some studies have focused on real-life decision making in children with ADHD using the Iowa gambling task, the number of good deck choices, a frequently used index of decision-making ability in the gambling task, is insufficient for investigating the complex decision-making strategies in subjects. In the present study, we investigated decision-making strategies in ADHD children, analyzing T-patterns with rewards, with punishments, and without rewards and punishments during the gambling task, and examined the relationship between decision-making strategies and skin conductance responses (SCRs) to rewards and punishments. We hypothesized that ADHD children and normal children would employ different decision-making strategies depending on their sensitivity to rewards and punishments in the gambling task. Our results revealed that ADHD children had fewer T-patterns with punishments and exhibited a significant tendency to have many T-patterns with rewards, thus supporting our hypothesis. Moreover, in contrast to normal children, ADHD children failed to demonstrate differences between reward and punishment SCRs, supporting the idea that they had an aberrant sensitivity to rewards and punishments. Therefore, we concluded that ADHD children would be impaired in decision-making strategies depending on their aberrant sensitivity to rewards and punishments. However, we were unable to specify whether large reward SCRs or small punishment SCRs is generated in ADHD children.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of lymphangiography as a treatment for various chyle leakages. Pedal lymphangiography was performed in 9 patients (6 men and 3 women; mean age, 59 years) who were unlikely to be cured only by conservative treatment - a low-fat medium-chain triglyceride diet, total parenteral nutrition and insertion of a drainage tube - and in whom chylothorax (n = 5), chylous ascites (n = 2) and lymphatic fistulae (n = 2) were refractory to conservative treatment. In 7 of these 9 patients (78%), we could detect the chyle leakage sites. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%), lymphatic leakage was stopped after lymphangiography, and surgical re-intervention was avoided. No cases had a recurrence of chyle leakage during follow-up (range, 1-54 months). Lymphangiography is effective not only for diagnosis but also as treatment for various chyle leakages. Early lymphangiography is therefore recommended for patients with chyle leakages who are unlikely to be cured by conservative treatment only.
Preview · Article · Dec 2008 · The British journal of radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathogenesis of leukoaraiosis is incompletely understood and accumulation of small infarctions may be one of the possible sources of such white matter lesions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify the rate of incident infarction as depicted on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained from a general patient population.
During the 4-year study period, a total of 60 patients (36 men and 24 women) had an incidental DWI-defined infarction without overt clinical symptoms suggestive of a stroke or a transient ischemic attack. All of the MR images were obtained by using a similar protocol on 2 identical 1.5T whole-body scanners. The patient's vascular risk factors, as well as the presence of white matter lesions (WMLs) on MR imaging and atheromatous changes on MR angiography, were assessed retrospectively. The incidental DWI-defined infarcts were also characterized in terms of their lateralization, lobe, and specific location.
A total of 16,206 consecutive brain MR images were done during the study period; the overall incidence of incidental infarcts was 0.37%. Most of these patients with an incidental infarct had vascular risk factors and WMLs on MR images. Most of these patients (80%) had a single lesion on DWI. A total of 88 lesions were identified; most were located in the white matter of the supratentorial brain, primarily in the frontoparietal lobes. There were also lesions involving the brain stem (n = 2). The lesions involving cerebrum were more commonly located in the right side (right to left = 52:34).
Small, DWI-defined acute brain infarctions can be found incidentally in an asymptomatic population; this finding may account, at least in part, for the pathogenesis of WMLs identified on MR imaging.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephron-sparing surgery is widely performed for T1a renal cell carcinoma not only for imperative case. Recently, less invasive methods such as laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and radio-frequency ablation (RFA) are rapidly spread. Three-dimensional CT and MRI provide the urologist with an interactive road map of the relationships among the tumor, the major vessels, and the collecting system. This information is particularly critical if nephron-sparing surgery is being planned.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 34-year-old man with the complication of chylous ascites after retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy that was refractory to various conservative therapies. Because surgical treatment for chylous ascites was considered, lymphangiography was performed to identify the area of leakage of chyle, after which the chylous ascites spontaneously healed.
Preview · Article · Oct 2005 · British Journal of Radiology