[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that there is a simple and effective treatment for pericardial tamponade (PCT), delayed diagnosis can cause serious morbidities or even mortality. In this study, we discuss the management and the diagnostic procedures of PCT.
Sixty-two patients with suspected PCT were initially evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and then with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Forty-nine (79%) patients were chosen for surgery after TEE displayed a suspected PCT diagnosis. Patients with suspected PCT were divided into two groups: Early-phase PCT (symptoms developed within 72 hours) and late-phase PCT (symptoms developed after 72 hours).
Thirty-five (56%) patients were in the early phase and 27 (44%) patients were in the late phase. In 13 out of 22 (59%) cases, from both early and late phases, TTE findings showed no PCT, but TEE findings showed a positive PCT diagnosis. All 13 of the cases where TEE was positive after a negative TTE were confirmed by surgery. Overall, the PCT diagnoses in 48 out of 49 patients were confirmed during surgery.
The role of echocardiography in PCT diagnosis is shown to be extremely important in some clinical cases, such as in patients during the postoperative period after cardiac surgery. Furthermore, particularly when TTE does not provide complete imaging of the pericardial sac, TEE should be mandatory. We recommend that even patients with a negative diagnosis of PCT from TTE should undergo further evaluation with TEE.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Cardiac Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temporary epicardial pacing wires (TEPW) which are routinely used after coronary bypass grafting may result in significant complications. We sought to identify variables that predict TEPW implantation and thereby limit their use.
This prospective study enrolled 564 patients (296 underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass [ONCAB] and 268 underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, OPCAB). TEPW were placed in patients with the intraoperative presence of one or more of the following criteria: sinus bradycardia, sinus arrest, nodal/junctional rhythms, atrioventricular block, bundle branch block, ventricular tachycardia, or onset of atrial fibrillation.
Only 31 (5.5%) patients [ONCAB: 20 (6.8%) (ventricular: 14, bichamber: 6); OPCAB: 11 (4.1%) (ventricular: 9, bichamber: 2)] had temporary epicardial pacing wires implanted intraoperatively. Indications for using temporary epicardial pacing wires for ONCAB were sinus bradycardia (8), nodal/junctional rhythms (3), atrioventricular block (3), atrial fibrillation (4), and bundle branch block (2), and for OPCAB were sinus bradycardia (8), nodal/junctional rhythms (2), and atrioventricular block (1). Mean duration for pacing was 22.4 h for the ONCAB group and 11.3 h for the OPCAB group. There were no temporary epicardial pacing wires associated complications. One paced OPCAB patient required a permanent pacemaker and 2 non-paced OPCAB patients required transvenous pacing wires. Univariate and multivariate analyses were also conducted to determine risk factors for TEPW.
TEPW implantation is overused in cardiac surgery and by identifying independent predictors for pacing we conclude that TEPW use should be limited to a select few.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · The Journal of cardiovascular surgery