Susan A West

U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (4)11.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Two prospective randomized trauma trials have shown recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) to be safe and to decrease transfusion requirements. rFVIIa is presently used in 22% of massively transfused civilian trauma patients. The US Military has used rFVIIa in combat trauma patients for five years, and two small studies of massively transfused patients described an association with improved outcomes. This study was undertaken to assess how deployed physicians are using rFVIIa and its impact on casualty outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: Derived from the necessity to improve the outcomes of soldiers injured on the battlefield, the U.S. military forces developed and implemented the Joint Theater Trauma System (JTTS) and the Joint Theater Trauma Registry based on U.S. civilian trauma system models. The purpose of this analysis was to develop battlefield injury outcome benchmark metrics and to evaluate the impact of JTTS-driven performance improvement interventions. To quantify these achievements, the Joint Theater Trauma Registry captured mechanistic, physiologic, diagnostic, therapeutic, and outcome data on 18,377 injured patients from January 2004 to May 2008 for analysis. Benchmarks were developed and statistically validated by using control chart methodology. The majority (66.4%) of battlefield wounds were penetrating mechanism, 23.3% of all patients had an Injury Severity Score of > or = 16, 21.8% had a base deficit of > or = 5, 30.5% of patients required blood, and 6.8% required massive transfusion (> or = 10 units red blood cell per 24 hours). In this severely injured population from the battlefield, the JTTS developed several pertinent benchmark metrics to assess quality of care associated with postinjury complications and mortality. The implementation of 27 JTTS-developed evidenced-based clinical practice guidelines and an improved information dissemination process was associated with a decrease in aggregate postinjury complications by 54%. Despite the numerous challenges of a global trauma system, the JTTS has set the standard for trauma care on the modern battlefield utilizing evidence-based medicine. The development of injury care benchmarks enhanced the evolution of the combat casualty care performance improvement process within the trauma system.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: Combat injury patterns differ from civilian trauma in that the former are largely explosion-related, comprising multiple mechanistic and fragment injuries and high-kinetic-energy bullets. Further, unlike civilians, U.S. armed forces combatants are usually heavily protected with helmets and Kevlar body armor with ceramic plate inserts. Searchable databases providing actionable, statistically valid knowledge of body surface entry wounds and resulting organ injury severity are essential to understanding combat trauma. Two tools were developed to address these unique aspects of combat injury: (1) the Surface Wound Mapping (SWM) database and Surface Wound Analysis Tool (SWAT) software that were developed to generate 3D density maps of point-of-surface wound entry and resultant anatomic injury severity; and (2) the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2005-Military that was developed by a panel of military trauma surgeons to account for multiple injury etiology from explosions and other high-kinetic- energy weapons. Combined data from the Joint Theater Trauma Registry, Navy/Marine Combat Trauma Registry, and the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System Mortality Trauma Registry were coded in AIS 2005-Military, entered into the SWM database, and analyzed for entrance site and wounding path. When data on 1,151 patients, who had a total of 3,500 surface wounds and 12,889 injuries, were entered into SWM, surface wounds averaged 3.0 per casualty and injuries averaged 11.2 per casualty. Of the 3,500 surface wounds, 2,496 (71%) were entrance wounds with 6,631 (51%) associated internal injuries, with 2.2 entrance wounds and 5.8 associated injuries per casualty (some details cannot be given because of operational security). Crude deaths rates were calculated using Maximum AIS-Military. These new tools have been successfully implemented to describe combat injury, mortality, and distribution of wounds and associated injuries. AIS 2005-Military is a more precise assignment of severity to military injuries. SWM has brought data from all three combat registries together into one analyzable database. SWM and SWAT allow visualization of wounds and associated injuries by region on a 3D model of the body.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to compare the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) with the new Field Triage Score (FTS) for prediction of mortality (MORT) and of need for massive transfusion (MASS, >or=10 units of packed cells or whole blood) in casualties arriving at combat support hospitals in Iraq. Six hundred ninety-two cases were reviewed; 536 had complete data and were included. Total Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS total) not GCS motor was used. Thus, a modification (FTS 07) of the FTS was calculated, using GCS <8 and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) <100 as cut-points, with range 0 to 2. Variables different by univariate analysis underwent logistic regression analysis (LRA) and areas under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. By LRA, probability of an outcome is given by p = e(k)/(1 + e(k)). By LRA for MORT, k = 0.616 - 0.438 x RTS; AUC = 0.708. When used instead of RTS, FTS 07 provided k = -0.716 - 1.009 x FTS 07; AUC = 0.687 (NS). For MASS, k = 0.638 - 0.115 x RTS - 0.011 x DAP + 0.358 x SI, where DAP is diastolic arterial pressure and SI is shock index, i.e., heart rate or SAP; AUC = 0.638. When used instead of RTS, FTS 07 provided k = -0.740 - 0.376 x FTS 07- 0.011 x DAP; AUC = 0.618 (NS). RTS emerged as the best predictor of MORT, with FTS 07 a close surrogate. This indicates the effect of impaired mentation on MORT in these data. For prediction of MASS, RTS as well as the heart rate and blood pressure predominated. The advantage of FTS 07 (or original FTS) over RTS is the former's ease of computation.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · The Journal of trauma