[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myoblast differentiation is indispensable for skeletal muscle formation and is governed by the precisely coordinated regulation of a series of transcription factors, including MyoD and myogenin, and transcriptional coregulators. TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif) has been characterized as a modulator of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes through its regulation of lineage-specific master transcription factors. In this study, we investigated whether TAZ affects myoblast differentiation, which is one of the differentiated lineages of mesenchymal stem cells. Ectopic overexpression of TAZ in myoblasts increases myogenic gene expression in a MyoD-dependent manner and hastens myofiber formation, whereas TAZ knockdown delays myogenic differentiation. In addition, enforced coexpression of TAZ and MyoD in fibroblasts accelerates MyoD-induced myogenic differentiation. TAZ physically interacts with MyoD through the WW domain and activates MyoD-dependent gene transcription. TAZ additionally enhances the interaction of MyoD with the myogenin gene promoter. These results strongly suggest that TAZ functions as a novel transcriptional modulator of myogenic differentiation by promoting MyoD-mediated myogenic gene expression.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · The FASEB Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quercetin is a popular flavonoid compound that is biosynthesized by plants; it is suggested to modulate a variety of inflammatory responses of macrophages and T lymphocytes. Oral administration of quercetin in arthritic rats dramatically diminishes clinical signs of arthritis. Moreover, quercetin ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which is associated with Th1-mediated immune responses. Like quercetin inhibits macrophage-induced cytokine production, it also blocks IL-12-dependent JAK-STAT signaling in Th cells. Despite the anti-inflammatory effects of quercetin acting through Th cells, the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we studied the function of quercetin in Th cells and found that quercetin suppressed both IFNgamma and IL-2 production upon T cell receptor stimulation. Furthermore, we uncovered the regulatory mechanisms of quercetin involved in the inhibition of cytokine production during Th cell activation. The fact that quercetin-derived IFNgamma suppression was blocked in T-bet-deficient Th cells demonstrated quercetin act through the modulation of T-bet expression. Whereas IL-2 inhibition by quercetin was independent of T-bet expression, quercetin diminished IL-2R alpha expression, which is critical for positive regulatory loop of IL-2 autoactivation. Taken together, quercetin is suggested to repress both IFNgamma and IL-2 cytokine production by independent mechanisms; T-bet-dependent IFNgamma suppression and IL-2R alpha-dependent IL-2 inhibition.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Biochemical pharmacology