[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the different profiles of serum lipids resulting from the administration of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Postmenopausal primary breast cancer patients (n = 197) with node-negative, hormone receptor-positive who were treated at our department or in other related medical institutions from April 1997 through March 2001 were given adjuvant therapy. The adjuvant therapy included 1 year's administration of tamoxifen (TAM) 20 mg or toremifene (TOR) 40 mg. The profiles of serum lipids such as total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglyceride (TG) were observed. After 1 year administration TC had significantly decreased (p < 0.001) both in the TAM group and the TOR group, but no significant difference was found between these groups (p = 0.249). HDL had significantly decreased in the TAM group (p < 0.001), while it had significantly increased in the TOR group (p < 0.001), and a significant difference was found between the groups (p < 0.001). TG had significantly increased in the TAM group (p < 0.001) but significantly decreased in the TOR group (p < 0.001). The medication was switched in those who still had abnormal lipid metabolism and given to them for another year. After 1 year from the crossover TC and HDL had increased to the levels of before administration (p < 0.001) and TG had decreased in those (n = 57) whose medication was switched from TAM to TOR. While TC had decreased and TG had increased in those (n = 23) whose medication was switched from TOR to TAM (p < 0.001). The above findings have suggested that TOR provides better profiles of lipid metabolism than TAM.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative assessment of the anticancer drug sensitivity of tumors plays an important role in the selection of therapy. If evaluation of the 5-FU sensitivity of microtissue specimens obtained by techniques such as core needle biopsy could be performed, the addition of fluorouracil to adriamycin and cyclophosphamide may further enhance response rates. In order to evaluate a simple sensitivity test for the anti-tumor agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), we examined whether an assay of a small sample could measure mRNA to predict the activities of thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). In addition, gene abnormalities on chromosomes 1 and 18 corresponding to DPD, TS and the relationships between the gene abnormalities and the amount of mRNA and activity were examined.
TS and DPD activity were measured using the fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate ligand binding assay and radio enzymatic assay, respectively, while mRNA levels were assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Chromosome 1 and 18 aberrations were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with centromere probes.
TS mRNA and TS activity showed a positive correlation (r=0.518, p=0.0017). TS activity and TS mRNA were significantly higher in the nuclear grade 3 group than in the other groups (p=0.04, p=0.0072, respectively). TS activity and mRNA in tumor tissue tended to decrease in the progesterone receptor positive groups (p=0.059, p=0.066, respectively). There was no correlation between DPD mRNA and DPD activity in tumor tissue (r=0.139, p=0.4423). DPD mRNA was measured as 282.88+/-170.68 copies/cell in tumor tissue and 635.88+/-310.04 copies/cell in normal tissue, and was thus significantly higher in normal tissue (p<0.001).
TS mRNA showed a positive correlation with TS activity, suggesting that this method of using small amounts of tissue can replace anti-cancer drug sensitivity tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Mammary ductoscopy (mammoscopy) is an ideal diagnostic method for intraductal lesions. The usefulness of mammoscopy for intraductal lesions was evaluated.
Mammoscopy was performed in 315 cases with nipple discharge. The mammoscopic findings of 46 breast cancer cases (47 lesions) and 109 intraductal papilloma cases (119 lesions) were compared with pathological findings.
Carcinoma was recognized by mammoscopy in 38 of 47 lesions (80.9%). Intraductal masses were detected by mammoscopy in 115 of 119 intraductal papilloma lesions. The shape of the mass was classified as hemispheric, papillary, or flat protrusion. The hemispheric and papillary shapes were most common in cases of intraductal papilloma and the flat protrusion type was most common in cases of carcinoma. The amount of material collected by intraductal biopsy under mammoscopic observation was smaller in carcinoma than in intraductal papilloma because the carcinoma lesions were usually located in peripheral ductlobular units and had weak tissue cohesion compared with that of intraductal papilloma. Of 133 intraductal biopsies performed for 69 intraductal papillomas, 17 biopsies yielded material insufficient for diagnosis in. The effectiveness of treatment by intraductal biopsy was recognized in 38 of 46 intraductal papillomas in which clinical follow-up continued for more than two years (82.6%). The therapeutic results of biopsy were poor in cases of multiple intraductal masses in multiple duct-lobular units.
Mammoscopy contributes not only the diagnosis in cases of nipple discharge, but is also of benefit in the treatment of intraductal papilloma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 48-year-old woman who underwent breast-conserving therapy for left breast cancer developed bone, pleural, and liver metastases with local recurrence. The result was an improvement in each image with a marked improvement as seen by elevated tumor marker levels, with treatment by MPA (800 mg/day p.o.) and intermittent low-dose chemotherapy with hepatic arterial infusion. The side effects were acceptable. Normalization of imagings and an improvement in tumor markers continued for two years. Thus, in spite of being a palliative treatment, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for liver metastasis from breast cancer might lead to prolongation of survival because of the improvement of other metastases due to the increased passage effect with MPA.
No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 62-year-old woman who underwent standard radical mastectomy for left breast cancer developed pleural and pulmonary metastases 16 years later. She complained of slight dyspnea, and computed tomography of the chest revealed a tumor with marked pleural effusion. Her serum level of carcinoembryonic antigen was also increased (49 ng/ml). Systemic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and 5-fluorouracil (CAF) was performed, but she did not show a marked response to CAF therapy. Therefore, she was orally administered UFT and CPA for 5 consecutive days followed by 2 drug-free days. Pleural disseminated foci and a lung tumor were reduced in size on chest CT and the CEA level was decreased within the normal limit. Recently, it was reported that UFT demonstrated significant antiangiogenic activity. This effect may play an important role in the efficacy seen in this patient.
No preview · Article · Oct 2000 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two patients with malignancy-associated hypercalcemia from bone metastases of breast cancer, accompanied by consciousness disturbance, were treated by a combination therapy of pamidronate and salmon calcitonin. The cause of the hypercalcemia in both cases was thought to be expanded bone metastases, which induced a local osteolytic hypercalcemia (LOH). In the end, this regimen could not control the growth of the metastatic tumor, but it produced a more rapid and prolonged decrease in serum calcium level than a single agent, and resulted in lessened consciousness disturbance without adverse effects. Hypercalcemia is a life-threatening paraneoplastic syndrome which requires urgent medical treatment, since malignant hypercalcemia progresses very rapidly and induces several severe complications. In conclusion, this combination therapy was extremely effective for consciousness disturbance accompanying hypercalcemia due to widespread bone metastases of cancer.
No preview · Article · Jun 2000 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 47-year-old female underwent mastectomy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy including an anthracycline agent for advanced breast cancer. She developed a pleural metastasis on 16 months later, which was refractory to intrathoracic cisplatinum administration and intravenous Docetaxel therapy. Brain metastases were also found. We therefore treated her with whole brain radiation therapy and oral chemotherapy with 5'-DFUR and cyclophosphamide. This combination therapy produced a marked decrease in each metastasis. The adverse effects were not remarkable. This regimen may play an important role not only from the standpoint of its effectiveness against tumor growth but also the quality of life of the patient.
No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 43-year-old female underwent muscle preserving mastectomy with 6 cycles of adjuvant CMF chemotherapy for breast cancer. She developed multiple lung metastases 16 months later. The metastases were refractory to 3 cycles of CAF administration, and worsened (PD). We therefore added high-dose toremifene to her treatment. This combination therapy brought a marked decrease in the lung metastases. After 9 cycles of CAF with high-dose toremifene therapy, lung metastatic findings had almost disappeared from her chest X-ray. Following this treatment, UFT and toremifene were orally administered for maintenance therapy. Thirty-two months later at present, no increase in these lesions has been observed. High-dose antiestrogen drugs have the potential to inhibit P-glycoprotein. The combination of high-dose toremifene with CAF is potentially effective against ADM-resistant breast cancer.
No preview · Article · Aug 1999 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy