[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analogs of capsaicin, such as capsaicinoids and capsinoids, activate a cation channel, transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1), and then increase the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). These compounds would be expected to activate TRPV1 via different mechanism(s), depending on their properties. We synthesized several capsaicinoids and capsinoids that have variable lengths of acyl moiety. The activities of these compounds towards TRPV1 heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells were determined by measuring [Ca2+]i. When an extracellular or intracellular Ca2+ source was removed, some agonists such as capsaicin could increase [Ca2+]i. However, a highly lipophilic capsaicinoid containing C18:0 and capsinoids containing C14:0, C18:0, or C18:1 (the latter was named olvanilate) could not elicit a large increase in [Ca2+]i in the absence of an extracellular or intracellular Ca2+ source. These results suggest that highly lipophilic compounds cause only a slight Ca2+ influx, via TRPV1 in the plasma membrane, and are not able to activate TRPV1 in the endoplasmic reticulum.