[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of Triapine administered in combination with doxorubicin.
Patients were treated with doxorubicin intravenously (IV) on day 1 and Triapine IV on days 1-4 of a 21-day cycle. The starting dose (level 1) was doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and Triapine 25 mg/m(2). PK analysis was performed at various time-points before and after treatment.
Twenty patients received a total of 49 courses of treatment on study. At dose level 2 (doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2), Triapine 45 mg/m(2)), two patients experienced DLTs (febrile neutropenia, grade 4 thrombocytopenia). An additional three patients were enrolled at dose level 1 without initial toxicity. Enrollment then resumed at dose level 2a with a decreased dose of doxorubicin (45 mg/m(2)) with Triapine 45 mg/m(2). The two patients enrolled on this level had two DLTs (diarrhea, CVA). Enrollment was planned to resume at dose level 1; however, the sixth patient enrolled to this cohort developed grade 5 heart failure (ejection fraction 20%, pretreatment EF 62%) after the second course. Thus, doxorubicin and Triapine were reduced to 45 and 25 mg/m(2), respectively (level 1a), prior to resuming enrollment at dose level 1, the MTD. The main drug-related toxicity was myelosuppression. Non-hematologic toxicities included mild-to-moderate fatigue, grade 3 diarrhea and grade 4 CVA. There was one treatment-related death due to heart failure. While no objective responses were observed, subjective evidence of clinical activity was observed in patients with refractory melanoma and prostate cancer.
Pretreated patients with advanced malignancies can tolerate the combination of Triapine and doxorubicin at doses that achieve subjective clinical benefit with the main treatment-related toxicities being myelosuppression and fatigue. The MTD was determined to be doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) on day 1 and Triapine 25 mg/m(2) on days 1-4 of a 21-day cycle.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy regimens including gemcitabine in combination with microtubule inhibitors such as docetaxel and paclitaxel have wide clinical application. Patupilone is a novel tubulin-polymerizing agent with activity against paclitaxel-resistant cell lines. We conducted a phase I trial to assess the maximum tolerated dose, dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and antitumor activity of gemcitabine and patupilone.
Patients with refractory solid tumors enrolled in cohorts of three. Cohorts received fixed doses of gemcitabine (1,000 or 750 mg/m(2)) along with escalating doses of patupilone (1.5-3 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle.
Twenty-seven patients received a total of 99 courses of treatment on study. Hematologic toxicity in the first cohort required a modification of the protocol to decrease the gemcitabine dose. Subsequent patients received gemcitabine 750 mg/m(2) and escalating doses of patupilone from 1.5 to 3 mg/m(2). DLTs were grade 3 asthenia and grade 3 dehydration. There was also one treatment-related death due to neutropenic infection. Other clinically significant toxicities were persistent asthenia and persistent nausea. Four patients, one each with pancreatic cancer, esophageal carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma, experienced a partial response.
The dose-limiting toxicities of gemcitabine and patupilone were asthenia and dehydration. Dose reductions also occurred due to persistent fatigue that was not dose-limiting. However, patients with advanced malignancies were able to tolerate gemcitabine and patupilone at doses that resulted in clinical benefit. The recommended phase II dose for this schedule is gemcitabine 750 mg/m(2) and patupilone 1.5 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of capecitabine with fixed-dose rate (FDR) gemcitabine.
Eligible adults (advanced solid tumor; performance status <or=2) received capecitabine 500 mg/m(2) PO BID days 1-14 and FDR gemcitabine (400-1,000 mg/m(2) escalated by 200 mg/m(2) increments) at 10 mg/m(2)/min days 1 and 8 on a 21-day cycle. A traditional 3 + 3 cohort design was used to determine the MTD.
Thirty patients (median age 59 years) were enrolled. The predominant grade >or=3 toxicity was myelosuppression, particularly neutropenia. At dose level 4 (1,000 mg/m(2) gemcitabine), two out of five evaluable patients had a DLT (grade 4 neutropenia >or=7 days). At dose level 3 (800 mg/m(2) gemcitabine), one patient had a DLT (grade 3 neutropenia >or=7 days) among six evaluable patients. Therefore, the MTD and recommended phase II dose was designated as capecitabine 500 mg/m(2) PO BID days 1-14 with 800 mg/m(2) FDR gemcitabine days 1 and 8 infused at 10 mg/m(2) per min on a 21-day cycle. Partial responses occurred in pretreated patients with esophageal, renal cell and bladder carcinomas.
This regimen was well tolerated and may deserve evaluation in advanced gastrointestinal and genitourinary carcinomas.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal models suggest that growth hormone participates in hepatocarcinogenesis.
To correlate the effect of octreotide long-acting release (LAR) on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and -II (IGF-II) with response and survival in patients with unresectable and metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma.
We conducted a phase II, single-institution trial of octreotide-LAR (30 mg intramuscularly every 4 weeks) in 15 patients while monitoring serum IGF-I and -II levels.
Patients (median CLIP score 2, Okuda stage II, and ECOG performance status 1) were treated for a median of 2.0 cycles. No responses occurred. Median overall survival was 116 days (range, 27-937 days) and median progression-free survival was 60 days (range, 27-444 days). One patient had prolonged stable disease (16 months). There were no grade 4 and four grade 3 toxicities: abdominal cramping, elevated creatinine, diarrhea, and dyspnea. Median serum IGF-I decreased from baseline (42.2 ng/mL; range, 14.2-109 ng/mL) to day 29 (27.9 ng/mL; range, 5.7-71.1 ng/mL), and median serum IGF-II decreased from baseline (25,000 ng/mL; range, 12,400-93,600 ng/mL) to day 29 (18,400 ng/mL; range, 4,061-79,400 ng/mL; 2-sided P<.006 and P<.04, respectively; Wilcoxon signed rank test). This suppression did not correlate with clinical activity. Baseline serum IGF-I >30 ng/mL was associated with greater progression-free survival and overall survival (P=.0005 and P=.0173, respectively; 2-sided log-rank test).
Octreotide-LAR lowered serum IGF-I and -II levels; however, this lowering did not correlate with clinical activity. There were no responses, and progression-free survival and overall survival were similar to historical patients not on treatment. Baseline serum IGF-I predicted prognosis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Clinical advances in hematology & oncology: H&O
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical objective of this trial was to evaluate gefitinib in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that had progressed despite prior treatment. Serial tumor biopsies were performed when possible and analyzed for activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Serial serum samples were measured for amphiregulin and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha).
One hundred fifteen patients were randomly assigned to receive gefitinib 250 or 500 mg orally once a day. One hundred ten patients were assessable for clinical efficacy. Biologic evaluation was performed on paired tumor samples from 28 patients and correlated with clinical outcome.
Median progression-free survival was 1.9 months (95% CI, 1.8 to 2.1 months) and 4-month progression-free survival rate was 13% +/- 5%. One patient achieved a radiographic partial response (RR = 1%; 95% CI, 0.01% to 5%). Median survival was 6.3 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 8.2 months). The most common adverse events were skin rash, diarrhea, and fatigue. In the biopsy cohort, expression of total or activated EGFR, activated Akt, activated MAP-kinase, or Ki67 did not decrease following 1 week of gefitinib. However, a trend toward decreased post-treatment levels of activated Akt and Ki67 was observed in patients with a PFS higher than the median, although these did not reach the .05 level of significance.
Gefitinib is inactive as a single agent in patients with previously treated colorectal cancer. In tumor samples, gefitinib did not inhibit activation of its proximal target, EGFR. Trends were observed for inhibition of downstream regulators of cellular survival and proliferation in patients achieving longer progression-free survival.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall response rate, toxicity and overall survival in patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer treated with gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin.
Patients with either adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus could enroll; however, patients could not have received prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Treatment cycles consisted of infusions of all three agents at days 1, 8 and 15, repeated every 28 days. Patients received gemcitabine 1,000, leucovorin 25 and 5-FU 600 mg/m(2). Tumor assessment was performed every 2 cycles. Responses were assessed using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group solid tumor response criteria.
Thirty-five patients with metastatic or locally advanced esophageal cancer enrolled. One complete response and ten partial responses were observed for an overall response rate of 31.4%. An additional 11 patients had stable disease as their best response. The median survival was 9.8 months with a 1-year survival rate of 37.1%. Toxicity was predominately hematologic, with 58% of patients experiencing grade 3 or 4 neutropenia.
The combination of gemcitabine, 5-FU and leucovorin had activity in advanced esophageal cancer. Patients tolerated the regimen well, with myelosuppression occurring most commonly. The combination merits further investigation as a treatment for esophageal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous experience with perillyl alcohol (POH) was with a formulation of 500-mg capsules each containing 250 mg POH and soybean oil. This formulation resulted in the ingestion of large amounts of soybean oil (>10 g/day). Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were primarily gastrointestinal. Prior studies also showed no further increase in POH metabolite concentrations with doses of >1600 mg/m2. Therefore, a new formulation of POH was developed (700 mg containing 675 mg POH) in an effort to improve dose and metabolite concentrations delivered and toxicity encountered with chronic dosing.
Eligible patients had refractory solid malignancies. Dose escalation occurred in cohorts of three at the dose levels/dose of 1350 mg, 2025 mg, 2700 mg, 3375 mg and 4050 mg, administered orally four times a day in a 28-day cycle.
A group of 19 patients were enrolled. One DLT occurred at dose level 5. This cohort was expanded to six patients, and no further DLT occurred. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The predominant toxicity was gastrointestinal. Nausea and vomiting occurred in 63% of patients (12/19, grade 1 in 10). The same proportion of patients (12/19) experienced heartburn and indigestion, primarily grade 1. Although the side effects were mild in nature, three patients withdrew from treatment, citing intolerable gastrointestinal toxicity. The AUCs of POH metabolites did not appear to increase from level 1 to level 2 or change significantly from day 1 to day 29. Inter- and intrapatient variability in metabolite levels was observed.
This reformulation of POH appears to be an improvement upon the prior formulation, by reducing the number of capsules ingested and the degree of gastrointestinal toxicity per dose. It does not appear to offer any metabolite pharmacokinetic advantage. A dose of 2050 mg administered four times daily was easily tolerated. Higher doses can be administered but with increasing gastrointestinal toxicity that limits compliance.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this trial were to assess the maximal tolerated dose and toxicity of the combination of oral eniluracil and 5-fluorouracil and intravenous gemcitabine.
Patients with histologically confirmed, incurable malignancy (solid tumor or lymphoma) refractory to standard therapy or for which no standard therapy exists were enrolled. The treatment plan consisted of weekly gemcitabine for three weeks with twice daily dosing of 5-FU and eniluracil for 21 days beginning on day one of gemcitabine. Cycles repeated on an every four week schedule. The initial cohort received gemcitabine 800 mg/m2, oral 5-FU 0.6 mg/m2 and eniluracil 6.0 mg/m2.
Twenty-six patients were enrolled. Eight patients received less than 2 cycles of therapy. Hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity predominated, with 48% of courses resulted in grade one or two neutropenia. Hematologic toxicity was dose limiting. One treatment related death occurred.
The combination of eniluracil, 5-fluorouracil and gemcitabine offers an oral alternative for 5-FU administration. The recommended phase II dose is gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2, 5FU 1.2 mg/m2 and eniluracil 12 mg/m2.
No preview · Article · Dec 2002 · Investigational New Drugs