[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion occurs frequently in the immune reactive phase in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Therefore, observation for 3-6 months before commencing antiviral therapy is recommended in patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels that exceed twice the upper limit of normal (ULN). However, HBeAg seroconversion occurs infrequently in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the waiting policy is necessary in endemic areas of HBV genotype C infection.
Ninety patients with HBeAg-positive CHB were followed prospectively without administering antiviral therapy for 6 months. Antiviral therapy was initiated promptly at any time if there was any evidence of biochemical (i.e., acute exacerbation of HBV infection or aggravation of jaundice) or symptomatic deterioration. After 6 months of observation, antiviral therapy was initiated according to the patient's ALT and HBV DNA levels.
Only one patient (1.1%) achieved spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion. Biochemical and symptomatic deterioration occurred before 6 months in 17 patients (18.9%) and 5 patients, respectively. High ALT and HBV DNA levels were both independent risk factors for biochemical deterioration. Of 15 patients with HBV DNA ≥5.1×10(7) IU/mL and ALT ≥5×ULN, biochemical deterioration occurred in 7 (46.7%), including 1 patient receiving liver transplantation due to liver failure.
Spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB is rare within 6 months. Biochemical deterioration was common and may lead to liver failure. Immediate antiviral therapy should be considered, especially in patients with high ALT and HBV DNA levels in endemic areas of genotype C infection.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Clinical and molecular hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Adefovir (ADV) resistance is more frequent in lamivudine (LMV)-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients than in nucleos(t)ide analogue-naïve patients. The majority of LMV-resistant mutants harbor the rtM204V/I mutation, while a minor fraction harbor the rtA181V/T mutation. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of the high rate of ADV resistance in LMV-resistant patients during ADV therapy.
We performed a clonal analysis of HBV reverse transcriptase in treatment-naïve (n = 3) and LMV-resistant patients before ADV therapy (n = 14). Dynamic changes in the viral population (n = 9) during ADV therapy were also analyzed.
Before ADV therapy, rtA181V/T was observed in 30 of 680 clones (4.4%) from 7 patients with LMV resistance under dominant rt204V/I mutation and in one of 150 clones in treatment-naïve patients. The rtA181V/T mutation was more frequently found in clones from LMV-resistant patients than in treatment-naïve patients (p = 0.029). The rtN236T mutation was not observed in any clone. During ADV therapy, most rtM204V/I mutants were replaced by wild type in all 3 patients without the rtA181V/T mutation and in one patient with the rtA181V/T mutation. Subsequently, wild type was replaced by the rtN236T and/or rtA181V/T mutant. In patients with the rtA181V/T mutation (n = 6), the rtA181V/T mutant overtook the rtM204V/I mutant in 3 of 4 patients with ADV resistance. In 2 patients without ADV resistance, most of the viral population was replaced by wild type by the last follow-up.
The high rate of ADV resistance in patients with LMV-resistance might be attributable to preexisting rtA181V/T mutant virus.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Antiviral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an uncomfortable procedure that requires adequate sedation for its successful conduction. We investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined use of intravenous midazolam and propofol for sedation during ERCP.
A retrospective review of patient records from a single tertiary care hospital was performed. Ninety-four patients undergoing ERCP received one of the two medication regimens, which was administered by a nurse under the supervision of a gastroenterologist. Patients in the midazolam (M) group (n=44) received only intravenous midazolam, which was titrated to achieve deep sedation. Patients in the midazolam pulse propofol (MP) group (n=50) initially received an intravenous combination of midazolam and propofol, and then propofol was titrated to achieve deep sedation.
The time to the initial sedation was shorter in the MP group than in the M group (1.13 minutes vs. 1.84 minutes, respectively; p<0.001). The recovery time was faster in the MP group than in the M group (p=0.031). There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to frequency of adverse events, pain experienced by the patient, patient discomfort, degree of amnesia, and gag reflex. Patient cooperation, rated by the endoscopist as excellent, was greater in the MP group than in the M group (p=0.046).
The combined use of intravenous midazolam and propofol for sedation during ERCP is more effective than midazolam alone. There is no difference in the safety of the procedure.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiologists first described the removal of bile duct stones using balloon dilation in the early 1980s. Recently, there has been renewed interest in endoscopic balloon dilation with a small balloon to avoid the complications of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in young patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, there is a disparity in using endoscopic balloon papillary dilation (EPBD) between the East and the West, depending on the origin of the studies. In the early 2000s, EST followed by endoscopic balloon dilation with a large balloon was introduced to treat large or difficult biliary stones. Endoscopic balloon dilation with a large balloon has generally been recognized as an effective and safe method, unlike EPBD. However, fatal complications have occurred in patients with endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD). The safety of endoscopic balloon dilation is still a debatable issue. Moreover, guidelines of indications and techniques have not been established in performing endoscopic balloon dilation with a small balloon or a large balloon. In this article, we discuss the issue of conventional and large balloon endoscopic dilation. We also suggest the indications and optimal techniques of EPBD and EPLBD.
Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of diagnostic and therapeutic transgastric (TG) peritoneoscopic interventions with a forward-viewing endoscopic ultrasound (FV-EUS).
This prospective endoscopic experimental study used an animal model. Combined TG peritoneoscopic interventions and EUS examination of the intra-abdominal organs were performed using an FV-EUS on 10 animal models (1 porcine and 9 canine). The procedures carried out include EUS evaluation and endoscopic biopsy of intraperitoneal organs, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), EUS-guided radiofrequency ablation (EUS-RFA), and argon plasma coagulation (APC) for hemostatic control. The animals were kept alive for 7 d, and then necropsy was performed to evaluate results and complications.
In all 10 animals, TG peritoneoscopy, followed by endoscopic biopsy for the liver, spleen, abdominal wall, and omentum, was performed successfully. APC helped control minor bleeding. Visualization of intra-abdominal solid organs with real-time EUS was accomplished with ease. Intraperitoneal EUS-FNA was successfully performed on the liver, spleen, and kidney. Similarly, a successful outcome was achieved with EUS-RFA of the hepatic parenchyma. No adverse events were recorded during the study.
Peritoneoscopic natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) interventions through FV-EUS were feasible in providing evaluation and performing endoscopic procedures. It promises potential as a platform for future EUS-based NOTES.
Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripancreatic tuberculous lymphadenopathy is very rare and can be misdiagnosed with pancreatic or peripancreatic malignancies. The clinical characteristics and treatment outcome have not been well known. Herein, we investigated the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), clinical features and treatment outcomes.
We retrospectively analyzed 42 patients diagnosed with peripancreatic tuberculosis between December 2004 and January 2011 at the tertiary care hospital of Korea.
Median age was 36 years (interquartile range, 30-55) and female was 66.7% (28/42). Nineteen patients (45.2%) had no symptoms, while the others had non-specific various symptoms. Thirteen (31.0%) had a previous history of tuberculosis. Initial impressions of the mass were pancreatic cancer in 14 (33.3%), tuberculosis lymphadenopathy in 13 patients (31.0%). EUS-FNA was performed in all 42 patients, with a diagnostic yield of pathologic examinations in 80.5%, PCR for tuberculosis in 42.9%, culture in 47.4% and acid-fast bacilli staining in 10.0%. Tuberculosis is confirmed in 28 (66.7%), probable tuberculosis in 14 (33.3%). All patients received anti-tuberculosis treatment, a 6-months regimen in 12 (28.6%) and a 9-months regimen in 28 (66.7%). Treatment response evaluated in 35 patients (83.3%) by CT criteria showed complete response in 10 patients (28.6%), partial response in 23 (65.7%), stable disease in 1 (2.9%) and progressive disease in 1 (2.9%).
Peripancreatic tuberculous lymphadenopathy is frequently mistaken for pancreatic malignancy. EUS-FNA can be helpful for an accurate diagnosis. Complete resolution of the lesion, however, was not common on following imaging study after treatment.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and AimComparatively little is known about acute pancreatitis or acute recurrent pancreatitis (AP/ARP) with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN) as the causative lesion although there have been many reports about the malignant potential of IPMN as a premalignant lesion. Methods
From 2000 to 2008, in a single tertiary referral center, out of 784 patients coded by the International Classification of Disease-10 with IPMN, 489 patients fulfilled our diagnostic criteria of IPMN. After careful exclusion of all known causes of AP/ARP, 34 patients with IPMN as the cause of AP/ARP were enrolled. ResultsAP/ARP caused by IPMN occurred in 34 (7%) out of 488 patients with IPMN, and the prevalence rate of AP/ARP was higher in the main-duct/combined type than in the branch-duct type (14% [16/111] vs 5% [18/378], respectively, P = 0.002). The severity of pancreatitis was mild, based on the computed tomography severity index score (median 2, range 0–4). Histologic review of 24 patients with surgical resection revealed four adenomas (17%), 17 borderline malignancies (71%), two carcinomas in situ (8%), and one invasive carcinoma (4%). AP/ARP did not recur in any of the 24 surgically resected patients during the follow-up period (median 52 months, range 38–115 months). ConclusionsAP/ARP caused by IPMN was of infrequent occurrence. AP/ARP caused by IPMN occurred more frequently in the main-duct/combined type than in the branch-duct type. Most cases were mild in severity and benign in histopathology. AP/ARP can be an initial manifestation of IPMN, though uncommon, which leads to diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) was introduced as an effective alternative to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage after failed ERCP. However, EUS-BD is technically challenging. The intraductal manipulation of the guidewire seems to be the most difficult stage of the procedure. Therefore, technical advances in guidewire manipulation may be required for EUS-BD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our treatment algorithm for guidewire manipulation protocol for EUS-BD after failed ERCP. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: A tertiary-care academic center. PATIENTS: Forty-five consecutive patients undergoing EUS-BD failed ERCP. INTERVENTIONS: Enhanced guidewire manipulation protocol (with a plane parallel to the long axis of the bile duct with an EUS needle tip or a new 0.025-inch guidewire in an extrahepatic approach and intrahepatic bile duct puncture of segment 2 and 4F cannula with guidewire probing in the intrahepatic approach) for rendezvous and antegrade therapy, EUS-BD with transluminal stenting for duodenal invasion, and crossover to another technique if each technique failed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Technical and functional success rates and adverse event rate of the current treatment algorithm for EUS-BD. RESULTS: The overall technical and functional success rates of EUS-BD in this study were 91% (intention to treat, n = 41/45) and 95% (per protocol, n = 39/41), respectively. Specifically, rendezvous (n = 20) and antegrade therapy (n = 14) were initially feasible in 34 of 45 patients (76%). With our protocol, 25 of 45 patients (56%) were eventually treated with rendezvous and antegrade therapy as a first-line or crossover treatment. EUS-guided biliary drainage with transluminal stenting in patients with duodenal invasion or failed antegrade therapy was feasible in the remaining 20 patients (44%). The overall adverse event rate of EUS-BD was 11%. LIMITATIONS: Single-operator, nonrandomized study. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study, our treatment algorithm with an enhanced guidewire manipulation protocol appeared to be technically feasible and effective. Given the favorable success rate and acceptable adverse event rate, this may be considered the standard treatment algorithm for future randomized trials of EUS-BD and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.
Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Gastrointestinal endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anisakiasis is frequent in Jeju Island because of the people's habit of ingesting raw fish. This study evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients with small bowel anisakiasis and compared them with those of patients with gastric anisakiasis.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 109 patients diagnosed with anisakiasis between May 2003 and November 2011.
Of the 109 patients diagnosed with anisakiasis, those with suspicious anisakiasis (n=38) or possible anisakiasis (n=12) were excluded. The age and gender distributions did not differ between patients with small bowel anisakiasis (n=30; age, 45±13 years) and those with gastric anisakiasis (n=29; age, 46±10 years). The mean duration of hospitalization was 5.4±4.3 days for patients with small bowel anisakiasis and 0.5±1.7 days for patients with gastric anisakiasis. Small bowel anisakiasis was accompanied by leukocytosis (76.7% vs 25.5%, p=0.003) and elevated C-reactive protein levels (3.4±3.2 mg/dL vs 0.5±0.3 mg/dL, p=0.009). Contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography showed small bowel wall thickening with dilatation in 93.3% (28/30) of patients and a small amount of ascites in 80.0% (24/30) of patients with small bowel anisakiasis.
Compared with gastric anisakiasis patients, small bowel anisakiasis patients had a longer hospitalization time, higher inflammatory marker levels, and small bowel wall thickening with ascites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is an important health problem in the world and related to many critical diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. Obesity leads to fat infiltration of multiple organs and infiltrated adipose tissue produces many cytokines resulting in the dysfunction of organs such as the gallbladder. In the biliary diseases, obesity and overweight have been known as a major risk factor for gallstones. According to current studies, obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and metabolic syndrome are related to various gallbladder diseases including gallbladder stones, cholecystitis, gallbladder polyps, and gallbladder cancers. We reviewed further literature on the obesity and gallbladder diseases, in aspects of epidemiology, mechanism, pathology and prevention.
Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disorder. Intestinal hamartomatous polyps in association with melanocytic pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes characterize PJS. Patients with PJS often have complications associated with the polyps, such as intestinal obstruction, intussusception, acute or chronic gastrointestinal bleeding, and the development of various types of cancer. Enteroclysis, small bowel follow-through, and push enteroscopy are generally used to identify the presence and location of small bowel polyps. Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) has been confirmed as a feasible, safe, and sensitive test for the surveillance of small bowel polyps in patients with PJS and could replace radiographic small bowel surveillance. Here, a case of PJS newly diagnosed by CE is reported. The patient, a 30-year-old man who had developed rectal polyps associated with anal extrusion 7 years previously, had six episodes of hematochezia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a strong genetic component, and its prevalence is notably increased in the family members of T2DM patients. However, there are few studies about the family history of T2DM. We carried out this study to assess the influences of family history on clinical characteristics in T2DM patients.
This is a cross-sectional study involving 651 T2DM patients. Patient history and physical examination were performed and fasting blood was taken. If any first degree relative was diabetic, a family history of diabetes was considered to exist.
Among the total 621 patients, 38.4% had a family history of diabetes. Patients with a family history had a younger age, higher weight, younger age at diagnosis and higher triglyceride level than did those without a family history. Dyslipidemia medication and metabolic syndrome were more prevalent in familial diabetes. Sex, blood pressure, previous treatment for diabetes, HbA1c, C-peptide, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were not different between familial and non-familial diabetes. Upon multiple linear regression analysis, the family history of diabetes remained significantly associated with serum triglyceride level.
In T2DM patients with a family history of diabetes, the disease tended to develop earlier. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors are more prevalent in familial T2DM than they were in non-familial T2DM. These results support the necessity of earlier screening for diabetes in family members of T2DM patients and more active prevention against cardiovascular disease in T2DM patients with a family history.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Korean Diabetes Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro studies showed that mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP) or precore (PC) region restore the replication inefficiency of the lamivudine-resistant mutant. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of molecular characteristics on the antiviral response to adefovir in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
Sixty-six lamivudine-resistant patients who were treated with adefovir monotherapy were studied. Sequences of BCP, PC region and reverse transcriptase were determined before adefovir therapy. In patients with virologic breakthrough, reverse transcriptase sequencing was performed.
The cumulative probabilities of virologic response were 23.3, 46, 52.7 and 59.5% at years 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. PC mutation, the absence of compensatory mutations (rtL80I/V or rtV173L), and a decrease in serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA by 3 log or greater at 6 months were independent predictors of virologic response. The cumulative probabilities of virologic breakthrough were 0, 12.9, 30.7 and 44.5% at years 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. BCP mutation and a less than 3 log decrease in serum HBV DNA at 6 months were 2 independent risk factors for virologic breakthrough.
Response to adefovir depends on mutation patterns in the BCP, PC region and reverse transcriptase, and on-treatment decreases in serum HBV DNA in lamivudine-resistant CHB patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kallmann's syndrome is a rare condition, and this is defined as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia or hyposmia. The syndrome may be associated with cleft lip, cleft palate, color blindness, skeletal abnormalities, renal agenesis, sensory neural hearing loss, obesity, etc. About 10 cases of Kallmann's syndrome have been reported in Korea, but there are no reports on cases of Kallmann's syndrome with atrophy of the frontal lobe, severe mental retardation and unilateral renal agenesis. We experienced a case of 17-year-old boy with abnormalities of the olfactory system, as was noted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). He had an atrophy of the frontal lobe, mental retardation, a micropenis and unilateral renal agenesis. Hormonal assay documented low levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). So, we report here on an unusual case of Kallmann's syndrome along with briefly reviewing the relevant medical literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype affects clinical outcomes of HCV infection, in terms of the response to antiviral therapy and progression of chronic liver diseases, and shows geographic differences in distribution. The aim of this study was to elucidate the HCV genotypes in patients with chronic HCV infection in Jeju, which is an island off the Korean peninsula.
The study population consisted of 162 patients with anti-HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA. HCV genotypes were determined using genotype specific primers.
HCV genotype 2a predominated (62.3%), followed by genotype 1b (34.0%) and 2b (3.7%). The prevalence of genotypes differed significantly with age, with HCV genotypes 1 and 2 being more frequent in older and younger subjects (P=0.035), respectively. HCV-RNA levels were higher in patients with genotype 1 than in those with genotype 2 (P=0.001). HCV genotype was not significantly related to sex, clinical diagnosis and potential risk factors.
HCV genotype 2a is most common in Jeju, followed by genotype 1b. Our results suggest that the distribution of the HCV genotype differs between regions in Korea.
Preview · Article · Apr 2008 · The Korean Journal of Hepatology