[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yawning and swallowing are fundamental physiological processes that are present from fetal stages throughout life and that involve sequential motor activities in the oropharyngo-larynx making it likely that they may share neuroanatomical pathways. We postulate that yawning and swallowing are controlled by a distributed network of brainstem regions including the central pattern generator of swallowing, and therefore spontaneous swallowing is frequently associated with spontaneous yawning. In this study, we sought to test this hypothesis by evaluating the elementary features of yawning in the facial, masseter and submental muscles, together with laryngeal movement sensor and respiratory recordings for spontaneous swallowing. We investigated 15 healthy, normal control subjects, 10 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 patients with brainstem stroke (BSS). Apart from four subjects with PD and two with BSS, who had dysphagia, none of the other study subjects were dysphagic by published criteria. Twenty-five subjects (10 control, 10 BSS, 5 PD) were evaluated by 1-h polygraphic recording, and 10 (5 control, 5 PD) underwent whole-night sleep recordings. One hundred thirty-two yawns were collected, 113 of which were associated with spontaneous swallows, a clear excess of what would be considered as coincidence. The yawns related with swallows could be classified into the following three categories. The characteristics or the duration of swallows and yawns were similar between controls and disease subjects, with the exception of increased duration of yawning in subjects with BSS. Our findings support the presence of common neuroanatomico-physiological pathways for spontaneous swallows and yawning.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Experimental Brain Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is accompanied by many psychiatric disorders and continues to be a disease that disturbs the functioning and quality of life (QOL) of patients. Aims: To assess the frequency of psychiatric disorders occurring in epileptic patients, determine depression and anxiety levels, and compare the results with healthy controls. The effect of epilepsy on QOL and the effects of social support on epilepsy were also assessed.
50 epileptic patients and 50 controls were compared using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I), Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Scale, Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Brief (WHOQOL-Brief).
44% of epileptic patients had psychiatric disorders, with depression being the most common diagnoses (28%). In terms of psychiatric comorbidity, there was a significant difference between the groups. The depression and anxiety scores of epileptic patients were significantly higher and there was no difference between the groups in terms of MSPSS scores. Psychological and physical subscale scores of WHOQOL-Brief were significantly lower in epileptic patients. In the epileptic group, a multi-variate analysis of covariance demonstrated that depression was a significant covariate for physical and psychological domains, anxiety was a significant covariate for psychological domain, social support was a significant covariate for social and environmental domains, and age of epilepsy onset was a significant covariate for physical domain of QOL.
Epilepsy needs multi-dimensional analysis because of its chronic nature, frequently accompanying psychiatric disorders, its negative effects on QOL and the important role social support plays. The clinicians' handling of patients at an early stage can play an important role in preventing the negative results of epilepsy.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Nordic journal of psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the cortical presentation of the hand area according to MRI images of the infarcted area in patients who have predominantly hand weakness.
"Pseudoperipheral palsy" is an old term employed to describe a rare clinical picture consisting of predominant weakness of the hand in association with cerebral infarction. Because the organization of the cortical efferent area of the hand has not been fully defined, this phenomenon merits attention. Recent advances in functional imaging have stimulated renewed interest in the cortical mapping of various body parts, particularly that of the hand.
The patients who had isolated hand palsy due to cerebral infarction underwent clinical examination and cerebral MRI investigation to locate the exact lesion site.
Eight patients (6 men, 2 women) aged 55 to 80 years (mean 69 years) were included in this study. All had at least one risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. All our 8 patients presented with hand palsy and lesions were detected in the contralateral precentral gyrus in all cases. The lesions were located in the middle to lower portion of the anterior wall of the central sulcus just posterior to the intersection of the superior frontal and precentral sulci.
Our findings indicate that the hand area in the cerebral motor cortex is located in the middle to lower portion of the anterior wall of the central sulcus, that is, in Brodmann area 4. We present our 8 patients showing isolated hand palsy due to a discrete cortical infarction on MRI to expand the knowledge about cortical localization of the hand area.