[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lasonolide A (LSA), a potent antitumor polyketide from the marine sponge, Forcepia sp., induces rapid and reversible protein hyperphosphorylation and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) at nanomolar concentrations independent of cyclin-dependent kinases. To identify cellular targets of LSA, we screened 2951 shRNAs targeting a pool of human kinases and phosphatases (1140 RefSeqs) to identify genes that modulate PCC in response to LSA. This led to the identification of RAF1 (C-RAF) as a mediator of LSA-induced PCC, as shRNAs against RAF1 conferred resistance to LSA. We found that LSA induced RAF1 phosphorylation on Serine 338 within minutes in human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116, ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-8, and Burkitt's lymphoma CA46 cell lines. RAF1 depletion by siRNAs attenuated LSA-induced PCC in HCT-116 and OVCAR-8 cells. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) with homozygous deletion in Raf1, but not deletion in the related kinase Braf, were resistant to LSA-induced PCC. Complementation of Raf1-/- MEFs with wild-type human RAF1, but not with kinase-dead RAF1 mutant, restored LSA-induced PCC. Finally, the Raf inhibitor sorafenib, but not the MEK inhibitor AZD6244, effectively suppressed LSA-induced PCC. Our findings implicate a previously unknown, MAPK-independent role of RAF1 in chromatin condensation and potent activation of this pathway by LSA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Camptothecin and its derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan are specific topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitors and potent anticancer drugs killing cancer cells by producing replication-associated DNA double-strand breaks, and the indenoisoquinoline LMP-400 (indotecan) is a novel Top1 inhibitor in clinical trial. To develop novel drug combinations, we conducted a synthetic lethal siRNA screen using a library that targets nearly 7,000 human genes. Depletion of ATR, the main transducer of replication stress came as a top candidate gene for camptothecin synthetic lethality. Validation studies using ATR siRNA and the ATR inhibitor VE-821, confirmed marked antiproliferative synergy with camptothecin, and even greater synergy with LMP-400. Single cell analyses and DNA fiber combing assays showed that VE-821 abrogates the S-phase replication elongation checkpoint and the replication origin-firing checkpoint induced by camptothecin and LMP-400. As expected, the combination of Top1 inhibitors with VE-821 inhibited the phosphorylation of ATR and Chk1; however, it strongly induced γH2AX. In cells treated with the combination, the γH2AX pattern changed over time from the well-defined Top1-induced damage foci to an intense peripheral and diffuse nuclear staining, which could be used as response biomarker. Finally, the clinical derivative of VE-821, VX-970 enhanced the in vivo tumor response to irinotecan without additional toxicity. A key implication of our work is the mechanistic rationale and proof-of-principle it provides to evaluate the combination of Top1 inhibitors with ATR inhibitors in clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humans are usually simultaneously exposed to several pesticides; consequently, combined actions between pesticides themselves or between pesticides and other chemicals need to be addressed in the risk assessment. Many pesticides are efficient activators of PXR and/or CAR, two major nuclear receptors that are also activated by other substrates. In the present work, we searched for interactions between endosulfan and methoxychlor, two organochlorine pesticides whose major routes of metabolism involve CAR- and PXR-regulated CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, and whose mechanisms of action remain poorly understood in humans. For this purpose, HepaRG cells were treated with both pesticides separately or in mixture for 24h or 2 weeks at concentrations relevant to human exposure levels. In combination they exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects. Whatever the duration of treatment both compounds increased CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 mRNA levels while they differently affected their corresponding activities. Endosulfan exerted a direct reversible inhibition of CYP3A4 activity that was confirmed in human liver microsomes. By contrast, methoxychlor induced this activity. The effects of the mixture on CYP3A4 activity were equal to the sum of those of each individual compound, suggesting an additive effect of each pesticide. Despite CYP2B6 activity was unchanged and increased with endosulfan and methoxychlor respectively, no change was observed with their mixture, supporting an antagonistic effect. Altogether, our data suggest that CAR and PXR activators endosulfan and methoxychlor can interact together and with other exogenous substrates in human hepatocytes. Their effects on CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 activities could have important consequences if extrapolated to the in vivo situation.
Preview · Article · May 2014 · Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isomalathion is a major impurity of technical grade malathion, one of the most abundantly applied insecticides; however little is known about its hepatotoxicity. In the present study, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of malathion and isomalathion either individually or in combination, were assessed using the metabolically competent human liver HepaRG cell line. Isomalathion reduced cell viability starting at a 100 μM concentration after a 24 h exposure. It also significantly induced caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner starting at 5 μM. On the contrary, even at concentrations as high as 500 μM malathion affected neither cell viability nor caspase-3 activity. Moreover, co-exposure of both compounds resulted in decreased toxicity of isomalathion. By contrast, malathion and isomalathion either separately or in combination, slightly induced micronuclei formation at low concentrations and had additive genotoxic effects when combined at 25 μM. Individually or combined isomalathion directly inhibited activity of carboxyesterases which are involved in detoxication of malathion. In addition, transcripts of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, two CYPs responsible for malathion phase I metabolism, were strongly induced by the mixture while isomalathion alone only moderately decreased CYP1A2 and increased CYP2B6 transcripts. However, these CYPs were not altered at the protein or activity levels. Taken altogether, our results showed that isomalathion was much more cytotoxic than malathion while both compounds had comparable genotoxic effects in HepaRG hepatocytes at low concentrations and brought further support to the importance of considering impurities and interactions during evaluation of health risks of pesticides.
Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Chemico-biological interactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene expression profiling has recently emerged as a promising approach to identify early target genes and discriminate genotoxic carcinogens from non-genotoxic carcinogens and non-carcinogens. However, early gene changes induced by genotoxic compounds in human liver remain largely unknown. Primary human hepatocytes and differentiated HepaRG cells were exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that induces DNA damage following enzyme-mediated bioactivation. Gene expression profile changes induced by a 24h exposure of these hepatocyte models to 0.05 and 0.25μM AFB1 were analyzed by using oligonucleotide pangenomic microarrays. The main altered signaling pathway was the p53 pathway and related functions such as cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. Direct involvement of the p53 protein in response to AFB1 was verified by using siRNA directed against p53. Among the 83 well-annotated genes commonly modulated in two pools of three human hepatocyte populations and HepaRG cells, several genes were identified as altered by AFB1 for the first time. In addition, a subset of 10 AFB1-altered genes, selected upon basis of their function or tumor suppressor role, was tested in four human hepatocyte populations and in response to other chemicals. Although they exhibited large variable inter-donor fold-changes, several of these genes, particularly FHIT, BCAS3 and SMYD3, were found to be altered by various direct and other indirect genotoxic compounds and unaffected by non-genotoxic compounds. Overall, this comprehensive analysis of early gene expression changes induced by AFB1 in human hepatocytes identified a gene subset that included several genes representing potential biomarkers of genotoxic compounds.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vitro micronucleus test is considered as an attractive tool for genotoxicity testing of chemicals because of its simplicity of scoring and wide applicability in different cell types. However, most of the cells currently in use are devoid of the enzyme equipment required for activation of promutagens in the genotoxic metabolites. We postulated that the human HepaRG cell line, which can express xenobiotic metabolising enzymes at levels close to those found in primary human hepatocytes and has retained the indefinite growth capacity of transformed cells, could represent a more suitable model for genotoxicity testing of chemicals requiring metabolic activation. Based on the recommendations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline TG 487 for testing of chemicals, HepaRG cell cultures containing >80% mature hepatocytes were treated in situ with various chemicals for 24 h followed by a 3-day mitogenic stimulation with epidermal growth factor without cytokinesis block. In such culture conditions, HepaRG cells underwent >1.5 cell cycle per cell during the mitogenic stimulation. While non-genotoxic compounds (mannitol and staurosporine) did not increase the rate of micronucleated mononucleated cells, all aneugens (colchicine, nocodazole and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) as well as the direct acting clastogen methyl methanesulfonate and clastogens requiring metabolic activation (aflatoxin B1, benzo(a)pyrene and 2-nitrofluorene) induced a statistically significant concentration-related increase in the number of mono-micronucleated cells. The micronucleus test was also performed after 7-day repeat exposure of HepaRG cells to the chemicals. Noticeably, a time-dependent effect was obtained with the three clastogens requiring metabolic activation. In conclusion, our results obtained with HepaRG hepatocytes exposed to various genotoxic compounds requiring or not bioactivation, compared favorably with those reported in various other cell types. They support the view that metabolically competent HepaRG cells have unique potential benefits for testing genotoxic compounds using the in vitro micronucleus assay.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several glitazones (PPARγ agonists) and glitazars (dual PPARα/γ agonists) have been developed to treat hyperglycemia and, simultaneously, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, respectively. However, most have caused idiosyncratic hepatic or extrahepatic toxicities through mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Since the liver plays a key role in lipid metabolism, we analyzed changes in gene expression profiles induced by these two types of PPAR agonists in human hepatocytes.
Primary human hepatocytes and the well-differentiated human hepatoma HepaRG cells were exposed to different concentrations of two PPARγ (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPARα/γ (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists for 24 h and their transcriptomes were analyzed using human pangenomic Agilent microarrays. Principal Component Analysis, hierarchical clustering and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® revealed large inter-individual variability in the response of the human hepatocyte populations to the different compounds. Many genes involved in lipid, carbohydrate, xenobiotic and cholesterol metabolism, as well as inflammation and immunity, were regulated by both PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists in at least a number of human hepatocyte populations and/or HepaRG cells. Only a few genes were selectively deregulated by glitazars when compared to glitazones, indicating that PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists share most of their target genes. Moreover, some target genes thought to be regulated only in mouse or to be expressed in Kupffer cells were also found to be responsive in human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells.
This first comprehensive analysis of gene regulation by PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists favor the conclusion that glitazones and glitazars share most of their target genes and induce large differential changes in gene profiles in human hepatocytes depending on hepatocyte donor, the compound class and/or individual compound, thereby supporting the occurrence of idiosyncratic toxicity in some patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genes involved and fold change after PPAR treatment in main metabolic pathways are listed in this table. The minimum and maximum fold changes obtained with HepaRG cells are indicated in square brackets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genes involved and fold change after PPAR treatment in main metabolic pathways are listed in this table. The minimum and maximum fold changes obtained with primary human hepatocytes are indicated in square brackets.