[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for inguinal herniorrhaphy postoperative pain control in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Forty patients undergoing unilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy with an epidural anesthetic technique were randomly allocated to receive either active TENS or placebo TENS. Postoperative pain was evaluated using a standard 10-point numeric rating scale (NRS). Analgesic requirements were also recorded. TENS (100 Hz, strong but comfortable sensory intensity) was applied for 30 minutes through 4 electrodes placed around the incision twice, 2 and 4 hours after surgery. Pain was assessed before and after each application of TENS and 8 and 24 hours after surgery. In the group treated with active TENS, pain intensity was significantly lower 2 hours (P = .028), 4 hours (P = .022), 8 hours (P = .006), and 24 hours (P = .001) after the surgery when compared with the group that received placebo TENS. Active TENS also decreased analgesic requirements in the postoperative period when compared with placebo TENS (P = .001). TENS is thus beneficial for postoperative pain relief after inguinal herniorrhaphy; it has no observable side effects, and the pain-reducing effect continued for at least 24 hours. Consequently, the routine use of TENS after inguinal herniorrhaphy is recommended. PERSPECTIVE: This study presents the hypoalgesic effect of high-frequency TENS for postoperative pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy. This may reinforce findings from basic science showing an opioid-like effect provided by TENS, given that high-frequency TENS has been shown to activate delta-opioid receptors.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society