Geoffrey W. Marcy

University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States

Are you Geoffrey W. Marcy?

Claim your profile

Publications (316)1854.11 Total impact

  • Source
    Matthew Z. Heising · Geoffrey W. Marcy · Hilke E. Schlichting
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Models are developed to simulate lightcurves of stars dimmed by transiting exoplanets with and without rings. These models are then applied to \textit{Kepler} photometry to search for planetary rings in a sample of 21 exoplanets, mostly hot Jupiters, chosen to offer the best observational opportunity for discovering potential rings. We also examine what kinds of rings might be expected for these planets, in terms of both size and orientation, based on arguments involving the host planet's equilibrium temperature, its likely obliquities, and the formation and stability of possible ring systems. Finding no evidence for rings, for each of the 21 studied planets it is determined on an observational basis which potential rings can be rejected out of a representative set of fiducial rings, varying in both size and orientation. For 12 of the 21 planets, we determined that Saturn-like rings could be ruled out for at least certain orientations. Additionally, the detectability of rings is studied, and it is found that ringed planets with small obliquities (roughly $5^{\circ}-10^{\circ}$) can yield large signals, which is encouraging for future work, since such small obliquities are expected for hot Jupiters.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The star HII 2407 is a member of the relatively young Pleiades star cluster and was previously discovered to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary. It is newly identified here within $Kepler$/$K2$ photometric time series data as an eclipsing binary system. Mutual fitting of the radial velocity and photometric data leads to an orbital solution and constraints on fundamental stellar parameters. While the primary has arrived on the main sequence, the secondary is still pre-main-sequence and we compare our results for the $M/M_\odot$ and $R/R_\odot$ values with stellar evolutionary models. We also demonstrate that the system is likely to be tidally synchronized. Follow-up infrared spectroscopy is likely to reveal the lines of the secondary, allowing for dynamically measured masses and elevating the system to benchmark eclipsing binary status.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have detected the Rossiter-Mclaughlin effect during a transit of WASP-47b, the only known hot Jupiter with close planetary companions. By combining our spectroscopic observations with Kepler photometry, we show that the projected stellar obliquity is $\lambda = 0^\circ \pm 24^\circ$. We can firmly exclude a retrograde orbit for WASP-47b, and rule out strongly misaligned prograde orbits. Low obliquities have also been found for most of the other compact multiplanet systems that have been investigated. The Kepler-56 system, with two close-in gas giants transiting their subgiant host star with an obliquity of at least 45$^\circ$, remains the only clear counterexample.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on the discovery and validation of Kepler-452b, a transiting planet identified by a search through the 4 years of data collected by NASA's Kepler Mission. This possibly rocky 1.63$^{+0.23}_{-0.20}$ R$_\oplus$ planet orbits its G2 host star every 384.843$^{+0.007}_{0.012}$ days, the longest orbital period for a small (R$_p$ < 2 R$_\oplus$) transiting exoplanet to date. The likelihood that this planet has a rocky composition lies between 49% and 62%. The star has an effective temperature of 5757$\pm$85 K and a log g of 4.32$\pm$0.09. At a mean orbital separation of 1.046$^{+0.019}_{-0.015}$ AU, this small planet is well within the optimistic habitable zone of its star (recent Venus/early Mars), experiencing only 10% more flux than Earth receives from the Sun today, and slightly outside the conservative habitable zone (runaway greenhouse/maximum greenhouse). The star is slightly larger and older than the Sun, with a present radius of 1.11$^{+0.15}_{-0.09}$ R$_\odot$ and an estimated age of 6 Gyr. Thus, Kepler-452b has likely always been in the habitable zone and should remain there for another 3 Gyr.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of two super-Earth mass planets orbiting the nearby K0.5 dwarf HD 7924 which was previously known to host one small planet. The new companions have masses of 7.9 and 6.4 M$_\oplus$, and orbital periods of 15.3 and 24.5 days. We perform a joint analysis of high-precision radial velocity data from Keck/HIRES and the new Automated Planet Finder Telescope (APF) to robustly detect three total planets in the system. We refine the ephemeris of the previously known planet using five years of new Keck data and high-cadence observations over the last 1.3 years with the APF. With this new ephemeris, we show that a previous transit search for the inner-most planet would have covered 70% of the predicted ingress or egress times. Photometric data collected over the last eight years using the Automated Photometric Telescope shows no evidence for transits of any of the planets, which would be detectable if the planets transit and their compositions are hydrogen-dominated. We detect a long-period signal that we interpret as the stellar magnetic activity cycle since it is strongly correlated with the Ca II H and K activity index. We also detect two additional short-period signals that we attribute to rotationally-modulated starspots and a one month alias. The high-cadence APF data help to distinguish between the true orbital periods and aliases caused by the window function of the Keck data. The planets orbiting HD 7924 are a local example of the compact, multi-planet systems that the Kepler Mission found in great abundance.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    Nathaniel K. Tellis · Geoffrey W. Marcy
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a search for laser emission coming from point sources in the vicinity of 2796 stars, including 1368 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) that host one or more exoplanets. We search for extremely narrow emission lines in the wavelength region between 3640 and 7890 Angstroms using the Keck 10-meter telescope and spectroscopy with high resolution ($\lambda/\Delta \lambda$ = 60,000). Laser emission lines coming from non-natural sources are distinguished from natural astrophysical sources by being monochromatic and coming from an unresolved point in space. We search for laser emission located 2-7 arcsec from the 2796 target stars. The detectability of laser emission is limited by Poisson statistics of the photons and scattered light, yielding a detection threshold flux of approximately $10^{-2}$ photons $m^{-2} s^{-1}$ for typical Kepler stars and 1 photon $m^{-2} s^{-1}$ for solar-type stars within 100 light-years. Diffraction-limited lasers having a 10-meter aperture can be detected from 100 light-years away if their power exceeds 90 W, and from 1000 light-years away (Kepler planets), if their power exceeds 1 kW (from lasers located 60-200 AU, and 2000-7000 AU from the nearby and Kepler stars, respectively). We did not find any such laser emission coming from any of the 2796 target stars. We discuss the implications for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
  • Conference Paper: Which Planets Are Rocky?
    Geoffrey Marcy
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Among the hundreds of near-Earth-size planets found by the NASA Kepler mission (some in the habitable zone), which of them are rocky like the Earth, and which are mini-Neptunes with thick layers of gas and water? The Kepler Project is making Doppler and transit-timing measurements to determine the masses and densities of some of these planets, to assess their structure.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 2015
  • Source
    Rea Kolbl · Geoffrey W. Marcy · Howard Isaacson · Andrew W. Howard

    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present an investigation of twelve candidate transiting planets from Kepler with orbital periods ranging from 34 to 207 days, selected from initial indications that they are small and potentially in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Few of these objects are known. The expected Doppler signals are too small to confirm them by demonstrating that their masses are in the planetary regime. Here we verify their planetary nature by validating them statistically using the BLENDER technique, which simulates large numbers of false positives and compares the resulting light curves with the Kepler photometry. This analysis was supplemented with new follow-up observations (high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, adaptive optics imaging, and speckle interferometry), as well as an analysis of the flux centroids. For eleven of them (KOI-0571.05, 1422.04, 1422.05, 2529.02, 3255.01, 3284.01, 4005.01, 4087.01, 4622.01, 4742.01, and 4745.01) we show that the likelihood they are true planets is far greater than that of a false positive, to a confidence level of 99.73% (3 sigma) or higher. For KOI-4427.01 the confidence level is about 99.2% (2.6 sigma). With our accurate characterization of the GKM host stars, the derived planetary radii range from 1.1 to 2.7 R_Earth. All twelve objects are confirmed to be in the HZ, and nine are small enough to be rocky. Excluding three of them that have been previously validated by others, our study doubles the number of known rocky planets in the HZ. KOI-3284.01 (Kepler-438b) and KOI-4742.01 (Kepler-442b) are the planets most similar to the Earth discovered to date when considering their size and incident flux jointly.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present an update to seven stars with long-period planets or planetary candidates using new and archival radial velocities from Keck-HIRES and literature velocities from other telescopes. Our updated analysis better constrains orbital parameters for these planets, four of which are known multi-planet systems. HD 24040 b and HD 183263 c are super-Jupiters with circular orbits and periods longer than 8 yr. We present a previously unseen linear trend in the residuals of HD 66428 indicative on an additional planetary companion. We confirm that GJ 849 is a multi-planet system and find a good orbital solution for the c component: it is a $1 M_{\rm Jup}$ planet in a 15 yr orbit (the longest known for a planet orbiting an M dwarf). We update the HD 74156 double-planet system. We also announce the detection of HD 145934 b, a $2 M_{\rm Jup}$ planet in a 7.5 yr orbit around a giant star. Two of our stars, HD 187123 and HD 217107, at present host the only known examples of systems comprising a hot Jupiter and a planet with a well constrained period $> 5$ yr, and with no evidence of giant planets in between. Our enlargement and improvement of long-period planet parameters will aid future analysis of origins, diversity, and evolution of planetary systems.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    Rea Kolbl · Geoffrey W. Marcy · Howard Isaacson · Andrew W. Howard
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present an algorithm to search for the faint spectrum of a second star mixed with the spectrum of a brighter star in high resolution spectra. We model optical stellar spectra as the sum of two input spectra drawn from a vast library of stars throughout the H-R diagram. From typical spectra having resolution of R=60,000, we are able to detect companions as faint as 1% relative to the primary star in approximately the V and R bandpasses of photometry. We are also able to find evidence for triple and quadruple systems, given that any additional companions are sufficiently bright. The precise threshold percentage depends on the SNR of the spectrum and the properties of the two stars. For cases of non-detection, we place a limit on the brightness of any potential companions. This algorithm is useful for detecting both faint orbiting companions and background stars that are angularly close to a foreground target star. The size of the entrance slit to the spectrometer, 0.87 x 3 arcsec (typically), sets the angular domain within which the second star can be detected. We analyzed Keck-HIRES spectra of 1160 California Kepler Survey objects of interest (KOI) searching for the secondary spectra, with the two goals of alerting the community to two possible host stars of the transiting planet and to dilution of the light curve. We report 63 California Kepler Survey objects of interest showing spectroscopic evidence of a secondary star.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astronomical Journal
  • Source
    Lauren M. Weiss · Geoffrey W. Marcy
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We study the masses and radii of 65 exoplanets smaller than 4 R ⊕ with orbital periods shorter than 100 days. We calculate the weighted mean densities of planets in bins of 0.5 R ⊕ and identify a density maximum of 7.6 g cm–3 at 1.4 R ⊕. On average, planets with radii up to R P = 1.5 R ⊕ increase in density with increasing radius. Above 1.5 R ⊕, the average planet density rapidly decreases with increasing radius, indicating that these planets have a large fraction of volatiles by volume overlying a rocky core. Including the solar system terrestrial planets with the exoplanets below 1.5 R ⊕, we find ρP = 2.43 + 3.39(R P/R ⊕) g cm–3 for R P < 1.5 R ⊕, which is consistent with rocky compositions. For 1.5 ≤ R P/R ⊕ < 4, we find M P/M ⊕ = 2.69(R P/R ⊕)0.93. The rms of planet masses to the fit between 1.5 and 4 R ⊕ is 4.3 M ⊕ with reduced χ2 = 6.2. The large scatter indicates a diversity in planet composition at a given radius. The compositional diversity can be due to planets of a given volume (as determined by their large H/He envelopes) containing rocky cores of different masses or compositions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present an updated analysis of LHS 6343, a triple system in the Kepler field which consists of a brown dwarf eclipsing one member of a widely-separated M+M binary system. By analyzing the full Kepler dataset and 34 Keck/HIRES radial velocity observations, we measure both the observed eclipse depth and Doppler semiamplitude to 0.5% precision. With Robo-AO and Palomar/PHARO adaptive optics imaging as well as TripleSpec spectroscopy, we measure a model-dependent mass for LHS 6343 C of 62.1 +/- 1.2 M_Jup and a radius of 0.783 +/- 0.011 R_Jup. We detect the secondary eclipse in the Kepler data at 3.5 sigma, measuring e cos omega = 0.0228 +/- 0.0008. We also derive a method to measure the mass and radius of a star and transiting/eclipsing companion directly, without any reliance on stellar models. The mass and radius of both objects depend only on the orbital period, stellar density, reduced semimajor axis, Doppler semiamplitude, eccentricity, and inclination. With this method, we calculate a model-independent mass and radius for LHS 6343 C to a precision of 3% and 2%, respectively.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    Article: Exoplanets
    Adam S. Burrows · Geoffrey W. Marcy

    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Adam S Burrows · Geoffrey W Marcy

    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a low-mass planet orbiting Gl 15 A based on radial velocities from the Eta-Earth Survey using HIRES at Keck Observatory. Gl 15 Ab is a planet with minimum mass Msini = 5.35 $\pm$ 0.75 M$_\oplus$, orbital period P = 11.4433 $\pm$ 0.0016 days, and an orbit that is consistent with circular. We characterize the host star using a variety of techniques. Photometric observations at Fairborn Observatory show no evidence for rotational modulation of spots at the orbital period to a limit of ~0.1 mmag, thus supporting the existence of the planet. We detect a second RV signal with a period of 44 days that we attribute to rotational modulation of stellar surface features, as confirmed by optical photometry and the Ca II H & K activity indicator. Using infrared spectroscopy from Palomar-TripleSpec, we measure an M2 V spectral type and a sub-solar metallicity ([M/H] = -0.22, [Fe/H] = -0.32). We measure a stellar radius of 0.3863 $\pm$ 0.0021 R$_\odot$ based on interferometry from CHARA.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report initial results from our long term search using precision radial velocities for planetary-mass companions located within a few AU of stars younger than the Sun. Based on a sample of >150 stars, we define a floor in the radial velocity scatter, sigma_RV, as a function of the chromospheric activity level R'_{HK}. This lower bound to the jitter, which increases with increasing stellar activity, sets the minimum planet mass that could be detected. Adopting a median activity-age relationship reveals the astrophysical limits to planet masses discernable via radial velocity monitoring, as a function of stellar age. Considering solar-mass primaries having the mean jitter-activity level, when they are younger than 100 / 300 / 1000 Myr, the stochastic jitter component in radial velocity measurements restricts detectable companion masses to > 0.3 / 0.2 / 0.1 M_Jupiter. These numbers require a large number -- several tens -- of radial velocity observations taken over a time frame longer than the orbital period. Lower companion mass limits can be achieved for stars with less than the mean jitter and/or with an increased number of observations.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A Search for Extraterrestrial Life (SETI), based on the possibility of interstellar communication via laser signals, is being designed to extend the search into the near-infrared spectral region (Wright et al, this conference). The dedicated near-infrared (900 to 1700 nm) instrument takes advantage of a new generation of avalanche photodiodes (APD), based on internal discrete amplification. These discrete APD (DAPD) detectors have a high speed response (< 1 GHz) and gain comparable to photomultiplier tubes, while also achieving significantly lower noise than previous APDs. We are investigating the use of DAPD detectors in this new astronomical instrument for a SETI search and transient source observations. We investigated experimentally the advantages of using a multiple detector device operating in parallel to remove spurious signals. We present the detector characterization and performance of the instrument in terms of false positive detection rates both theoretically and empirically through lab measurements. We discuss the required criteria that will be needed for laser light pulse detection in our experiment. These criteria are defined to optimize the trade between high detection efficiency and low false positive coincident signals, which can be produced by detector dark noise, background light, cosmic rays, and astronomical sources. We investigate experimentally how false coincidence rates depend on the number of detectors in parallel, and on the signal pulse height and width. We also look into the corresponding threshold to each of the signals to optimize the sensitivity while also reducing the false coincidence rates. Lastly, we discuss the analytical solution used to predict the probability of laser pulse detection with multiple detectors.
    Preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We are designing and constructing a new SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) instrument to search for direct evidence of interstellar communications via pulsed laser signals at near-infrared wavelengths. The new instrument design builds upon our past optical SETI experiences, and is the first step toward a new, more versatile and sophisticated generation of very fast optical and near-infrared pulse search devices. We present our instrumental design by giving an overview of the opto-mechanical design, detector selection and characterization, signal processing, and integration procedure. This project makes use of near-infrared (950-1650 nm) discrete amplification Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) that have greater than 1 GHz bandwidths with low noise characteristics and moderate gain (~10^4). We have investigated the use of single versus multiple detectors in our instrument (see Maire et al., this conference), and have optimized the system to have both high sensitivity and low false coincidence rates. Our design is optimized for use behind a 1m telescope and includes an optical camera for acquisition and guiding. A goal is to make our instrument relatively economical and easy to duplicate. We describe our observational setup and our initial search strategies for SETI targets, and for potential interesting compact astrophysical objects.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will search for planets transiting bright and nearby stars. TESS has been selected by NASA for launch in 2017 as an Astrophysics Explorer mission. The spacecraft will be placed into a highly elliptical 13.7-day orbit around the Earth. During its two-year mission, TESS will employ four wide-field optical CCD cameras to monitor at least 200,000 main-sequence dwarf stars with I<13 for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. Each star will be observed for an interval ranging from one month to one year, depending mainly on the star's ecliptic latitude. The longest observing intervals will be for stars near the ecliptic poles, which are the optimal locations for follow-up observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. Brightness measurements of preselected target stars will be recorded every 2 min, and full frame images will be recorded every 30 min. TESS stars will be 10-100 times brighter than those surveyed by the pioneering Kepler mission. This will make TESS planets easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS is expected to find more than a thousand planets smaller than Neptune, including dozens that are comparable in size to the Earth. Public data releases will occur every four months, inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the nearest and brightest stars hosting transiting planets, which will endure as highly favorable targets for detailed investigations.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014

Publication Stats

15k Citations
1,854.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988-2015
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1987-2013
    • San Francisco State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2006-2012
    • SETI Institute
      Mountain View, California, United States
  • 2011
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • Department of Physics
      Santa Barbara, California, United States
    • University of Central Lancashire
      Preston, England, United Kingdom
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Exeter
      Exeter, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2004-2005
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
    • The Washington Institute
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2003
    • Franklin and Marshall College
      Marshall, Texas, United States
  • 2000
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States