Roman A. McLellan

Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (12)48.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The human CYP2A6 enzyme metabolizes certain drugs and pre-carcinogens and appears to be the most important enzyme for nicotine metabolism. At present, more than 10 different allelic variants are known that cause abolished or decreased enzyme activity. Genetic polymorphism in this gene might be of particular importance for an individual's need for nicotine and for susceptibility to lung and/or liver cancer. We have identified a new CYP2A6 allele (CYP2A6*12) which carries an unequal crossover between the CYP2A6 and CYP2A7 genes in intron 2. This results in a hybrid allele where the 5' regulatory region and exons 1-2 are of CYP2A7 origin and exons 3-9 are of CYP2A6 origin, resulting in 10 amino acid substitutions compared to the CYP2A6(*)1 allele. Phenotyping with the CYP2A6 substrate coumarin indicates that it causes reduced CYP2A6 activity in'vivo. Furthermore, when expressed in mammalian COS-1 cells, the enzyme variant catalyzed 7-hydroxylation of coumarin at a rate approximately 60% of that of the wild-type enzyme. The CYP2A6(*)12 allele was present at an allele frequency of 2.2% among Spaniards, but was absent in Chinese.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Human Mutation
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a human extrahepatic P450 that activates procarinogens, metabolizes 17beta-estradiol, and may well have a role in the pathogenesis of some forms of cancer. Besides rare deleterious mutations reported for the CYP1B1 gene, six single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported, of which four cause amino acid exchanges. We have expressed two of the common CYP1B1 alleles in yeast cells and mammalian COS-1 cells in order to functionally characterize the alleles with respect to kinetic properties and protein stability. The CYP1B1.2 variant contains the two linked amino acid substitutions R48G and A119S compared to CYP1B1.1. The kinetic parameters of two structurally unrelated CYP1B1 substrates for the two variants were examined. No kinetic differences were seen of 17beta-estradiol hydroxylation activities between the two CYP1B1 variants and an only minor increase in the apparent Km for ethoxyresorufin was observed for CYP1B1.2. It therefore appears that they have very similar catalytic properties and the substitutions do not appear to alter CYP1B1 catalytic function. The two CYP1B1 variants were similarly stable when expressed in mammalian COS-1 cells, indicating that the substitutions have no effect on protein folding or stability. The combined results indicate that these two CYP1B1 variants show very similar properties with respect to catalytic activities and protein stability and do not alter CYP1B1 function.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2000 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

  • No preview · Article · Nov 1999 · Pharmacogenetics
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    ABSTRACT: The polymorphic human cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) metabolises a number of drugs, activates a variety of precarcinogens and constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. A relationship between CYP2A6 genotype and smoking habits, as well as incidence of lung cancer, has been proposed. Two defective alleles have hitherto been identified, one of which is very common in Asian populations. Among Caucasians, an additional defective and frequently distributed allele (CYP2A6*3) has been suggested to play a protective role against nicotine addiction and cigarette consumption. Here, we have re-evaluated the genotyping method used for the CYP2A6*3 allele and found that a gene conversion in the 3' flanking region of 30-40% of CYP2A6*1 alleles results in genotype misclassification. In fact, no true CYP2A6*3 alleles were found among 100 Spaniards and 96 Chinese subjects. In one Spanish poor metaboliser of the CYP2A6 probe drug coumarin, we found two novel defective alleles. One, CYP2A6*5, encoded an unstable enzyme having a G479L substitution and the other was found to carry a novel type of CYP2A6 gene deletion (CYP2A6*4D). The results imply the presence of numerous defective as well as active CYP2A6 alleles as a consequence of CYP2A6/CYP2A7 gene conversion events. We conclude that molecular epidemiological studies concerning CYP2A6 require validated genotyping methods for accurate detection of all known defective CYP2A6 alleles.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 1999 · FEBS Letters
  • Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg · Mikael Oscarson · Roman A McLellan
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 40% of human P450-dependent drug metabolism is carried out by polymorphic enzymes, which can cause abolished, quantitatively or qualitatively altered or enhanced drug metabolism. The latter situation is due to stable duplication, multiduplication or amplification of active genes, most likely in response to dietary components that have resulted in a selection of alleles with multiple non-inducible genes. Several examples exist where subjects carrying certain alleles suffer from a lack of drug efficacy due to ultrarapid metabolism or, alternatively, adverse effects from the drug treatment due to the presence of defective alleles. Knowledge in this field has grown rapidly and can now be applied to both drug development and clinical practice. This is facilitated by the recent development of high-throughput methods for mutation detection and oligonucleotide chips array technology for the identification of a multitude of mutations in the genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes. The outcome will allow for safer and more efficient drug therapies.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2A6 is an important human hepatic P450 which activates pre-carcinogens, oxidises some drugs and constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. In fact, results have been presented in the literature which suggested a relationship between the distribution of defective CYP2A6 alleles and smoking behaviour as well as cigarette consumption. In the present report, we describe the structure of a novel CYP2A locus where the whole CYP2A6 gene has been deleted, resulting in an abolished cytochrome P450 2A6-dependent metabolism. The origin of this locus is apparently due to an unequal crossover event between the 3'-flanking region of the CYP2A6 and CYP2A7 genes. A rapid PCR-based method for the detection of the CYP2A6del allele was developed and the allele frequency was 15.1% among 96 Chinese subjects, but only 1.0% in Finns (n=100) and 0.5% in Spaniards (n=100). In the Chinese population, we did not detect any CYP2A6*2 alleles using an improved genotyping procedure, in contrast to the 11-20% previously reported. It is concluded that genotyping for the CYP2A6del allele is of great importance in studies correlating, for example, smoking behaviour, pre-carcinogen activation or drug metabolism to the CYP2A6 genotype, in particular when oriental populations are investigated.
    Full-text · Article · May 1999 · FEBS Letters
  • Robert K. Drobitch · Roman A. Mclellan · Kenneth W. Renton
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium channel antagonists have been shown to inhibit cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism both in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of amlodipine on a suite of rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 activities to determine the potential for drug interactions. In this study, amlodipine (0.05 and 0.5 mM) decreased CYP1A-mediated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity in microsomes prepared from noninduced (56 and 73% inhibition) and pyridine-induced (30 and 51% inhibition) rats. Amlodipine reduced pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity (a marker for CYP2B) to 15% of control in incubations utilizing microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rats, but had no effect on this enzyme reaction in noninduced microsomes. The para-nitrophenol hydroxylase, erythromycin N-demethylase, and lauric acid omega and omega-1 hydroxylase activities were significantly inhibited by 1 mM amlodipine in both noninduced and induced microsomes. These results suggest that amlodipine inhibits a number of different P450 forms and therefore has the potential to inhibit the metabolism of a large number of drugs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The mu class glutathione S-transferase gene GSTM1 is polymorphic in humans, with approximately half of the Caucasian population being homozygous deleted for this gene. GSTM1 enzyme deficiency has been suggested to predispose people to lung and bladder cancer. Some people in a Saudi Arabian population, however, have been described previously with ultrarapid GSTM1 enzyme activity. Here we have evaluated the molecular genetic basis for this observation. Genomic DNA from two Saudi Arabian subjects exhibiting ultrarapid enzyme activity and from 13 Swedish subjects having null, one, or two GSTM1 genes were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using the restriction enzymes EcoRI, EcoRV, and HindIII and combinations thereof. Hybridization was carried out using a full-length GSTM1 cDNA or the 5' and 3' parts of the cDNA. The restriction mapping data revealed the presence of a GST mu cluster with two GSTM1 genes in tandem situated between the GSTM2 and GSTM5 genes. A quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction method, which simultaneously amplified a fragment of the GSTM1 gene and the beta-globin gene, was developed, and the genomic GSTM1 copy number was determined from the GSTM1/beta-globin ratio. This method clearly separated GSTM1 +/- subjects (ratios between 0.4 and 0.7) from GSTM1 +/+ subjects (ratios between 0.8 and 1.2). The two Saudi Arabians with ultrarapid GSTM1 activities had ratios of approximately 1.5, indicating that they carried three GSTM1 genes. These results demonstrate the existence of a novel mu class GST cluster containing a duplicated active GSTM1 gene causing ultrarapid enzyme activity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Molecular Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) causing poor, extensive or ultrarapid metabolism of several clinically important drugs exhibits pronounced interethnic variation. Ultrarapid metabolism is caused by multiple copies of active CYP2D6 genes and recently 29% of an Ethiopian population has been shown to carry duplicated or multiduplicated CYP2D6 genes, whereas the corresponding frequency in other black, Oriental and European populations investigated is 1-2%. In order to characterize the distribution of alleles with multiple CYP2D6 copies in a neighbouring population and to characterize the CYP2D locus in general among Saudi Arabians, the CYP2D6 genotype of a Saudi Arabian population was examined using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Of 101 Saudi Arabians studied, 21 subjects had an EcoRI fragment indicative of CYP2D6 gene duplication. In contrast, only two individuals were heterozygous for a deletion of the whole gene (CYP2D6*5). The allele frequency of CYP2D6*4, the most common defective allele among Caucasians, was only 3.5% in the Saudi population. Two other alleles, CYP2D6*10 and *17, common in certain populations and which cause diminished enzyme activity, were found only at low allele frequencies of 3.0% each. These findings are in agreement with earlier Saudi Arabian phenotyping studies which reported a low frequency (1-2%) of poor metabolizers for CYP2D6 probe drugs. In conclusion, the Saudi Arabian population studied exhibited very few defective alleles and a large number of subjects carried duplicated CYP2D6 genes, implying a high conservation on functional CYP2D6 genes possibly due to dietary reasons and reveal the Saudi Arabians as an unique population in comparison with others examined.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1997 · Pharmacogenetics
  • R.A. McLellan · R.K. Drobitch · M Monshouwer · K.W. Renton
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    ABSTRACT: The fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents have gained widespread use in the treatment of a broad range of bacterial infections. We recently described a possible interaction concerning the concomitant use of cyclosporine A and norfloxacin in pediatric renal transplant patients. We examined the effect of two common fluoroquinolone antibiotics on cytochrome P450-mediated drug biotransformations in human and rat liver microsomes. Rats were pretreated with inducers, which increased the levels of the P450 isozymes CYP3A2, CYP1A, CYP2E1, and CYP4A1. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin significantly depressed the N-demethylation of erythromycin by CYP3A4 in human microsomes and by CYP3A2 in rat microsomes. The inhibition was determined to be competitive in nature in rat microsomes, with ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin both exhibiting similar Ki values of 2.0 and 2.3 mM, respectively. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin also inhibited ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (CYP1A). In contrast, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin did not inhibit the metabolism of substrates that are specific for the P450 isozymes CYP2E1 and CYP4A1. Rats treated chronically with norfloxacin revealed no alterations in hepatic CYP3A2 protein levels or activity. These studies in hepatic microsomes demonstrate that fluoroquinolones can decrease CYP3A- and CYP1A-mediated biotransformation by competitive inhibition and that they have the potential to cause drug interactions with agents metabolized by these enzymes.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1996 · Drug Metabolism and Disposition
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    ABSTRACT: It is now established that inflammatory stimuli such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and polyinosinic acid:polycytidylic (polyIC) suppress hepatic expression of cytochrome P450 (P450) genes in rat liver. Previous studies have suggested that LPS- or polyIC-induced downregulation of P450 was due to endogenously released inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and interferons (IFNs). To improve our understanding of the role of inflammatory cytokines in mediating P450 depression, we investigated the possibility of preventing P450 downregulation with pentoxifylline. Pentoxifylline has been shown to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-alpha production by suppression of TNF-alpha gene expression. The present study shows that in uninduced male rats pentoxifylline selectively prevents the downregulation of microsomal P4501A2 and P4502B caused by LPS. No protective effect of pentoxifylline on the downregulation of P4502E1 and P4503A1/2 was observed. PolyIC-induced downregulation of P4501A2, P4502B, P4502E1, and P4503A1/2 was not affected by pentoxifylline. These results suggest that the LPS-induced downregulation of P4501A2 and P4502B is mediated to a large extent by TNF-alpha. Other cytokines might be involved in the suppression of P4502E1 and P4503A1/2. The fact that polyIC-induced downregulation is not protected by pentoxifylline is further evidence that this agent acts via a selective induction of IFNs.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1996 · Biochemical Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Prophylactic treatment with norfloxacin was initiated in a group of pediatric patients undergoing renal transplantation who were receiving cyclosporine and were susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections. At discharge from the hospital, the mean daily dose of cyclosporine needed to maintain trough cyclosporine blood levels of 150 to 400 ng/ml was 4.5 mg/kg/day for the patients who received norfloxacin compared with 7.4 mg/kg/day for patients who did not receive the antibiotic. This observation suggested that the clearance of cyclosporine was decreased by the concomitant use of norfloxacin. The effect of norfloxacin on specific drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 isozymes in vitro was examined to determine if the metabolism and subsequent clearance of cyclosporine and possibly other drugs are altered through a metabolic interaction with norfloxacin. In human liver microsomes, the activity of cytochrome P4503A4, the isozyme that metabolizes cyclosporine in humans, was inhibited by norfloxacin. In rat liver microsomes, norfloxacin inhibited the activity of cytochrome P4503A2, the isozyme responsible for cyclosporine metabolism in this species, but did not alter the activity of the rat cytochrome P450 isozymes 1A, 2E1, and 4A1. The in vitro studies suggest that the lower cyclosporine dose required by pediatric patients who were given norfloxacin was caused by inhibition of the metabolism of cyclosporine.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1995 · Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics