[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of body parts on 4-month-olds' categorization of cats and dogs was examined using a visual preference procedure. Infants were familiarized with pictures of exemplars from one of two categories, cat or dog. In test, looking time to an out-ofcategory exemplar was compared to looking time to a novel withincategory exemplar with one changed body reg ion (face, head, torso). Results demonstrate the importance of the torso region in infants' categorization. Findings are discussed in terms of the relative influence of various body regions, depending on the conditions under which categorization occurs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An experiment with 64 twelve-month-olds investigated the influence of object naming on their formation of novel object categories. Stimuli were constructed to represent 2 broad categories consisting of 3 narrow categories each. Objects representing the same narrow or broad category were presented with either a labelling or non-labelling phrase in a modified word extension procedure. Only infants in the narrow category-level condition who heard labelling phrases demonstrated categorization, and categorization performance in the narrow label condition was superior to that in the narrow no-label condition. Consistent with studies utilizing conventional objects, results indicate that object naming can facilitate infants' formation of novel object categories early in the process of lexical acquisition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present research investigated attention to and recognition of components in compound stimuli by infants and preschool children. A preliminary experiment was conducted with adults to develop stimulus components and to validate their structure. An experiment using an oddity task with preschoolers (N = 32) and one using the familiarization/novelty-preference task with infants (N = 64) demonstrated successful discrimination among the stimulus components on the basis of edge property information. Separate experiments using a matching task with preschoolers (N = 32) and an habituation task with infants (N = 32) demonstrated that preschoolers and infants are also able to direct attention to and recognize components of compound stimuli. Implications for structural-description theories of object recognition are discussed.
No preview · Article · Nov 2003 · Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This experiment examines the joint influence of auditory and social cues on infants' basic-level and global categorization. Nine- and fifteen-month-olds were familiarized to a series of category exemplars in an object-examining task. Objects were introduced with a labeling phrase, a non-labeling sound, or no sound, and auditory input was presented orally by the experimenter or played on a hidden voice recorder. Novel objects from the familiarized category and a contrasting category were then presented. Results of analyses performed on novelty preference scores indicated that infants demonstrated basic-level categorization in all conditions. However, infants at both age levels only demonstrated global categorization when labeling phrases were introduced. In addition, labels led to global categorization in 9-month-olds regardless of the source of those labels; however, labels only led to global categorization in 15-month-olds when the labels were presented orally by the experimenter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present research explored 3-, 7-, and 10-yr.-old children's face recognition in a "paraphernalia-to-fool" paradigm in which angular size of the stimuli was manipulated. It was proposed that, given the attentional limitations of the two youngest age groups, facial information and irrelevant paraphernalia would be perceived as an undifferentiated whole in stimuli of small visual angles, resulting in decreased recognition. However, increasing angular size should enable the 7-yr.-olds to differentiate the two types of stimulus information more easily. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the influence of paraphernalia on 7-yr.-olds' performance would be moderated by the spatial size of the stimulus. The effect of angular size was also expected to interact with age group. As predicted, 10-yr.-olds were unaffected by the size manipulation, 7-yr.-olds' performance was moderated by angular size, and, although 3-yr.-olds' recognition improved with large stimuli, the increase was not significant. Results are discussed in relation to the influence of stimulus properties and age-related attentional limitations.
No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · Perceptual and Motor Skills
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three experiments were performed to test whether infants show a bias for detecting the presence of a feature in a stimulus rather than its absence. In the 1st experiment, 24 16-week-old infants were given 3 paired-comparison problems, each of which included a 25-s familiarization phase followed by 2 test trials. Infants were familiarized to 1 member of a set of capital alphabetical letters (E-F; Q-O; B-R). Then they were given a paired-comparison recognition test under 1 of 2 conditions. In the feature-present condition, the familiar letter (e.g., F) was paired with a novel letter containing the addition of a distinguishing element (e.g., E). In the feature-absent condition, infants were presented with a familiar letter (e.g., E) paired with a novel letter in which 1 element was removed (e.g., F). Infants showed a novelty preference to the letter in which the distinguishing feature was present, but there was no preference for novelty in the feature-absent condition. The 2nd experiment showed that infants' fixation to the letter containing the presence of the feature was not due to a simple preference for the letter with the greater number of elements. Finally, to test whether infants' failure to discriminate the absence was due to insufficient encoding time, 36 infants were tested in a 3rd experiment in which familiarization time was varied. After 20 s of familiarization, no evidence of discrimination was observed in either the feature-present or feature-absent condition. After 30 s, however, infants could discriminate the novel letter in the feature-present condition but not in the feature-absent condition. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of theoretical explanations for the development of the feature-presence bias.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2001 · The Journal of Genetic Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This study was undertaken to examine whether alleged child sexual abuse perpetrators are handled differently by the courts than other alleged felony perpetrators. Comparisons were made from the time of prosecutorial case acceptance through prosecution to sentencing, with emphasis on judicial and prosecutorial decision-making and plea-bargaining.Method: Data were retrospectively abstracted on the entire defendant population of cases of sexual abuse of children and adolescents (ages 2–17) over a 5-year period. Using a case-flow analysis, comparisons were made between a child sexual abuse cohort and a cohort of matched felony cases from a single jurisdiction.Results: Three important findings emerged. First, compared to other felons, abuse perpetrators were employed, had been married, were mostly European American, and were older than 30 years of age. Second, in the abuse cohort, as many as 14% had a previous sexual or violent record compared to 2% in the comparison group. Third, similar percentages of perpetrators in both groups were released on their own recognizance, had the charges against them dropped, and were found guilty. As well, no differences between groups were found in the proportion of individuals sentenced to jail, probation, counseling, or work release.Conclusions: Although the treatment of perpetrators of child sexual abuse was similar to the treatment of perpetrators of other felonies, the profile of the child abuse perpetrator was quite different. Knowledge about this profile may impact prosecution or treatment and recidivism rates, to the extent that recidivism is related to characteristics of the abuse perpetrator.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recognition of a visual stimulus was assessed under two same- and two different-context conditions. Results indicate: (a) following brief familiarization, recognition of a visual stimulus is context-sensitive regardless of whether contextual cues are visual or auditory, and (b) recognition failure under different-context conditions results from change in context rather than from unfamiliar-cue distraction.
Preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Infant Behavior and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present experiment was designed to investigate the priority with which 6-month-olds attend to stimuli containing both contextual and target information. The procedure involved a familiarization phase to a stimulus that contained a central target cue and a surrounding context followed by paired comparison novelty tests. Results indicate that when infants monitor the environment, background context cues receive attentional priority over target cues.
No preview · Article · Jan 1999 · Infant Behavior and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four experiments were conducted using stimuli that included a central stimulus cue and a background context pattern. At issue was how attention, encoding, and recognition are affected when these stimulus components are manipulated within habituation, familiarization, and recognition procedures. Results indicate that infants attend to and encode both stimulus components (cue, context pattern), and that these components are encoded interactively. That is, infants encode cue information in relation to the context (setting) in which it is experienced. Results also indicate that recognition is context dependent under some experimental conditions, with successful recognition exhibited only when encoding and retrieval contexts are identical. Nevertheless, factors that influence the deployment of attention to context patterns also determine whether cue recognition is cintext dependent or not. Results were discussed in terms of the importance of attentional processes in infants' monitoring of the visual world and in terms of theoretical issues related to attentional deployment in infants.
No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Infant Behavior and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four experiments were conducted using stimuli that included a central stimulus cue and a background context pattern. At issue was how attention, encoding, and recognition are affected when these stimulus components are manipulated within habituation, familiarization, and recognition procedures. Results indicate that infants attend to and encode both stimulus components (cue, context pattern), and that these components are encoded interactively. That is, infants encode cue information in relation to the context (setting) in which it is experienced. Results also indicate that recognition is context dependent under some experimental conditions, with successful recognition exhibited only when encoding and retrieval contexts are identical. Nevertheless, factors that influence the deployment of attention to context patterns also determine whether cue recognition is context dependent or not. Results were discussed in terms of the importance of attentional processes in infants' monitoring of the visual world and in terms of theoretical issues related to attentional deployment in infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three experiments were conducted to investigate the response of 10-week-old infants to the configuration of features in facelike patterns. In each experiment a series of preview trials was shown before. facelike patterns were presented on test trials. Preview stimuli were schematic drawings with non-facial configurations (Experiment 1), schematic drawings with facial configurations (Experiment 2), or photographs of men's and women's faces (Experiment 3). Test stimuli in all three experiments were facelike drawings that differed in the number and the configuration of their stimulus features.
No preview · Article · Oct 1994 · Visual Cognition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty-two 10-month-olds completed an habituation procedure where a male or female face was paired with a specific object. Results reveal 10-month-olds can form categories based on correlations among attributes of social information. Basic processes involved in gender role formation are present in 10-month-olds.
No preview · Article · Oct 1994 · Infant Behavior and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five-month-old infants were trained to fixate four event locations, and recall was assessed following training in three experiments. Memory for four events was demonstrated in the first two studies, and memory for these events was also found to be robust following a 6- to 7-day delay. Infants demonstrated that they can anticipate upcoming events during training: they increased anticipatory behaviors during latter training trials, and they appeared to form expectancies of future events during periods of both stimulus onset and stimulus offset. Results are interpreted as consistent with a script representational view of memory for spatiotemporal events.
No preview · Article · May 1989 · Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty-eight pairs of observers recorded fixations during three test sessions. In each session an adult subject executed a predetermined sequence of fixations for 15 20-s trials. Three factors were investigated: Viewing Condition (live vs. videotaped subject). Number of Stimulus Apertures (1, 2, 4) and Subject Eye Color (blue, brown). Results indicated that training procedures which focus on observer agreement generally lead to acceptable levels of accuracy. However, certain procedural variations affect observer accuracy and observer agreement in different ways. Likewise, certain experimental procedures are particularly demanding in terms of observer accuracy.
No preview · Article · Apr 1989 · Infant Behavior and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 10-week-old infants were shown 4 facelike patterns that differed along 2 dimensions: number of elements and the extent to which the elements were organized to resemble the human face. The purpose was to determine whether the stimulus dimension to which infants respond is different with fixed-trial than with infant-control methodologies. Each infant was tested under 1 of 3 experimental conditions: fixed trials (trials and intervals of fixed, predetermined durations), offset control (trial termination controlled by the behavior of the infant), or onset-offset control (trial initiation and termination both controlled by the infant's behavior). Although the relationship was linear with fixed trials and offset control but was curvilinear with onset-offset control, infants responded to number, rather than organization, of elements in all 3 conditions. Furthermore, no specific methodological advantages were demonstrated for infant-control procedures.
No preview · Article · Mar 1983 · Child Development