[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor sertraline at 200 mg/day delays relapse in recently abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals.
The study involved a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 2-week residential stay followed by 10-week out-patient participation.
Veterans Affairs residential unit and out-patient treatment research program.
Cocaine-dependent volunteers (n = 86) with depressive symptoms (Hamilton score > 15), but otherwise no major psychiatric or medical disorder or contraindication to sertraline.
Participants were housed on a drug-free residential unit (weeks 1-2) and randomized to receive sertraline or placebo. Participants then participated on an out-patient basis during weeks 3-12 while continuing to receive study medication. Patients participated in a day substance abuse/day treatment program during weeks 1-3 and underwent weekly cognitive behavioral therapy during weeks 4-12. The primary outcome measure was thrice-weekly urine results and the secondary measure was Hamilton Depression scores.
Pre-hoc analyses were performed on those who participated beyond week 2. Generally, no group differences in retention or baseline characteristics occurred. Sertraline patients showed a trend towards longer time before their first cocaine-positive urine ('lapse', χ(2) = 3.67, P = 0.056), went significantly longer before having two consecutive urine samples positive for cocaine ('relapse', χ(2) = 4.03, P = 0.04) and showed significantly more days to lapse (26.1 ± 16.7 versus 13.2 ± 10.5; Z = 2.89, P = 0.004) and relapse (21.3 ± 10.8 versus 32.3 ± 14.9; Z = 2.25, P = 0.02). Depression scores decreased over time (F = 43.43, P < 0.0001), but did not differ between groups (F = 0.09, P = 0.77).
Sertraline delays time to relapse relative to placebo in cocaine-dependent patients who initially achieve at least 2 weeks of abstinence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the dose-related efficacy of disulfiram for treating cocaine dependence in methadone-stabilized cocaine dependent participants.
One hundred and sixty-one cocaine- and opioid-dependent volunteers were entered into a 14-week, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial at two sites.
Participants were stabilized on methadone during weeks 1-2 and received disulfiram at 0, 62.5, 125 or 250 mg/day during weeks 3-14. All participants also received weekly cognitive behavioral therapy. Thrice-weekly urine samples and weekly self-reported drug use assessments were obtained.
Baseline subject characteristics, retention and drug use did not differ across groups. Outcome analyses were performed on those who participated beyond week 2. Opioid-positive urine samples and self-reported opioid use did not differ by treatment group. The prevalence of alcohol use was low prior to and during the trial and did not differ by treatment group. Cocaine-positive urines increased over time in the 62.5 and 125 mg disulfiram groups and decreased over time in the 250 mg disulfiram and placebo groups (p < 0.0001). Self-reported cocaine use increased in the 125 mg disulfiram group relative to the other three treatment groups (p = 0.04).
Disulfiram may be contraindicated for cocaine dependence at doses <250 mg/day. Whether disulfiram at higher doses is efficacious in reducing cocaine use in dually cocaine and opioid dependent individuals needs to be determined.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Drug and alcohol dependence
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the therapeutic use and abuse potential of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or Xyrem), relatively few studies have examined the behavioral effects of GHB in humans under controlled laboratory conditions. Thus, this eight-session study examined in 10 non-substance-abusing volunteers the behavioral effects of GHB at each of the following doses: 0, 0.32, 0.56, 0.75, 1.0, 1.8, 2.4, 3.2 g/70 kg, orally. Order of dose testing was random, except that the first two participants received active doses in ascending order and 2.4 g/70 kg was always tested before 3.2 g/70 kg. Before drug administration and at several postdrug time points, self-report, observer report, physiological, and psychomotor performance measures were obtained. Analyses based on area under the curve showed that GHB produced dose-related increases in subjective ratings of sedative-like, stimulant-like, positive mood, and dissociative effects, but no changes in psychomotor performance measures or blood pressure. Analyses based on peak effects generally showed dose-related increases in ratings indicating sedative-like, dissociative, and drug liking, although some measures showed U-shaped dose-related changes. These initial findings suggest that GHB at doses of 0.32-3.2 g/70 kg produces dissociative, sedating and some stimulant-like effects in humans without a history of sedative abuse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the success of opiate-agonist therapies such as methadone for the treatment of opiate addiction, treatment response is not complete. This study evaluates the efficacy of citalopram augmented with bupropion in the treatment of illicit opiate use in a methadone-stabilized population. We conducted a 12-week randomized, double-blind, outpatient clinical trial in which 60 subjects were randomized into one of three treatment groups: placebo, citalopram (40 mg/day) plus placebo, or citalopram (40 mg/day) plus bupropion (50 mg/day). The results indicate that neither citalopram nor citalopram augmented with bupropion were more effective than placebo in the treatment of opioid abuse.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · American Journal on Addictions