- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study describes the constituents of phenolic acids, volatile components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Teucrium orientale var. glabrescens. Antioxidant activity of methanolic and aquous extracts were examined by three different methods, namely ferric reducing antioxidant power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The phenolic constituents were also determined by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Solid phase microextraction of Teucrium orientale var. glabrescens was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Dedector/Mass Spectromerty, Solid-Phase Microextraction (GC-FID/MS, SPME). The antimicrobial activity was studied by agar diffusion method. Extracts showed strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and contained large amounts of antioxidant compounds. Rosmarinic acid, p-coumaric acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were detected in methanolic extract of plant. Aquous extract was especially effective against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The main chemical classes identified consisted of aldehydes (32.5%), hydrocarbons (29.8%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (29.8%). Common volatile components of plant detected included nonanal, thuja-2,4 (10)-diene and tetracosane. Practical Applications: Medicinal plants are natural resources used in the treatment of various ailments. Teucrium species have been widely used in folk medicine as a remedy for gastritis, parasitic worms, colds, digestive ulcers, etc. Teucrium species are the subject of growing interest because of their biological properties. Although studies on screening the antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity of the Teucrium species have been done densely, studies on phenolic compounds of Teucrium orientale var. glabrescens are very limited. Teucrium orientale var. glabrescens extracts studied proved to be a good source of antioxidants, antimicrobial agents and volatile components that might serve to protect health and fight against several diseases.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the levels of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin) and the indices of insulin sensitivity/ resistance, and to examine the relationship among them in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study groups included 45 subjects with MetS (31 women/14 men), and 45 sex- and age-matched non-MetS healthy volunteers (31 women/14 men). The levels of adipokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of leptin and visfatin were significantly higher in the MetS than in the non-MetS subjects (P < 0.01). There was no difference in adiponectin levels in subjects with and without MetS (P = 0.052). Similarly, resistin did not show any statistically significant difference. A statistically significant positive correlation ofleptin with insulin levels was observed, while negative correlations of visfatin levels with age, and resistin levels with the ratio of adiponectin to leptin, were found in the MetS (P <0.05). The combination of adipokines, insulin resistance-sensitivity parameters, and MetS criteria parameters gave more significant differences than a single parameter. Since the parameters mentioned above might affect, interact with, and/or interfere with each other, the combinations of these parameters might give more reliable results to evaluate the insulin resistance/sensitivity in MetS patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to being consumed as food, caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruits are also used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatism. C. spinosa L. is rich in phenolic compounds, making it increasingly popular because of its components' potential benefits to human health. We analyzed a number of individual phenolic compounds and investigated in vitro biological activities of C. spinosa L. Sixteen phenolic constituents were identified using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic compounds (TPCs), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were used as determinants of antioxidant capacity. C. spinosa L. exhibited strong antioxidant activity and contained high levels of antioxidant compounds. Gentisic, sinapic and benzoic acid were detected in C. spinosa L. No gallic acid, proto-catechuic acid, proto-catechuic aldehyde, chlorogenic acid, p-OH benzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid or rosmarinic acid were identified. Iron and zinc were present at high levels in samples. C. spinosa L. appears to be a good source of antioxidants and minerals that might serve to protect health and combat several diseases.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiepileptic drugs may affect the endocrine system. We investigated the effects of valproic acid and topiramate on the levels of insulin, c-peptide and adipocytokines in pre-pubertal patients with idiopathic partial and generalized epilepsy. Forty-one children with epilepsy were included. The patients were divided into two groups (valproic acid; n=21, topiramate; n=20). The weight, height, body mass index and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were recorded and insulin, c-peptide, leptin, neuropeptide Y, adiponectin, visfatin and resistin levels were determined at 0, 6 and 12 months of therapy. In the valproate group, weight and height increased significantly. Seven of 21 patients were overweight at the end of one year. Leptin was higher in the overweight subgroup. Although insulin and HOMA-IR increased (p<0.05), none of the patients showed hyperinsulinism or IR. Resistin had decreased at the 6th and 12th months (p<0.05). In the topiramate group, some statistically nonsignificant changes were demonstrated. The mechanisms behind valproate and topiramate-related weight control are still unclear, especially in children. Valproate and topiramate affect the weight, BMI, and insulin, leptin and adipocytokine levels in prepubertal children. We suggest that further studies including more patients with a long follow-up period are necessary to draw a firm conclusion regarding an association between the treatment with these drugs and the levels of leptin, insulin and adipocytokines.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Antiepileptic drugs have been reported to reduce the levels of serum immunoglobulins and affect the production and levels of certain cytokines. We investigated the effects of valproic acid (VPA) and topiramate (TPM) on the blood levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in children with idiopathic generalized and partial epilepsy. Methods: Forty prepubertal children aged 6-12 (mean 8.3±1.7) years, 19/40 (47.5%) female and 21/40 (52.5%) male, with idiopathic generalized or partial epilepsy diagnosed in the child neurology outpatient clinic were included. The patients were divided into two treatment groups: 20 were treated with VPA and 20 with TPM. The plasma levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α were measured using ELISA method before the initiation of treatment and at the 6th and 12th months of the treatment. The Chi-square test was used to compare qualitative data. To compare the periods, recurrence measurements were done using variance analysis and Freidman 2-sided variance analysis. p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: In the VPA group, the levels of IL-1α significantly increased at 12 months while the levels of IL-10 decreased at 6 months of treatment compared to values before treatment (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α (p>0.05). In the TPM group, lower levels of IL-10 were observed at 6th and 12th months compared to the onset of treatment (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that VPA and TPM might lead to changes in the levels of cytokines in epileptic patients. The next step would be to investigate the relation of these findings to the outcome of epilepsy and response to treatment.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bee pollen has been used as an apitherapy agent for several centuries to treat burns, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, and various other diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chestnut bee pollen against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)-induced liver damage. Total phenolic content, flavonoid, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and DPPH radical activity measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants of the pollen. The study was conducted in rats as seven groups. Two different concentrations of chestnut bee pollens (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were given orally and one group was administered with silibinin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days to the rats following the CCI4 treatment. The protective effect of the bee pollen was monitored by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (AST) activities, histopathological imaging, and antioxidant parameters from the blood and liver samples of the rats. The results were compared with the silibinin-treated and untreated groups. We detected that CCI4 treatment induced liver damage and both the bee pollen and silibinin-treated groups reversed the damage; however, silibinin caused significant weight loss and mortality due, severe diarrhea in the rats. The chestnut pollen had showed 28.87 mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic substance, 8.07 mg QUE/g DW of total flavonoid, 92.71 mg Cyn-3-glu/kg DW of total anthocyanins, and 9 mg beta -carotene/100 g DW of total carotenoid and substantial amount of antioxidant power according to FRAP and DPPH activity. The results demonstrated that the chestnut bee pollen protects the hepatocytes from the oxidative stress and promotes the healing of the liver damage induced by CCI4 toxicity. Our findings suggest that chestnut bee pollen can be used as a safe alternative to the silibinin in the treatment of liver injuries.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore effects of erythropoietin and pentoxifylline in tacrolimus-induced pancreatic beta cell and renal injury in rats. Rats in group I were given saline; rats in group II were injected with tacrolimus; rats in group III were received erythropoietin (Epo) and tacrolimus; while rats in group IV were injected pentoxifylline (Ptx) plus tacrolimus for nine d. On 10th day, blood and tissue samples were taken for biochemical and pathological evaluations. Tacrolimus-injected animals exhibited significant elevation in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum BUN levels were improved in rats pretreated with Ptx. Significantly more apoptotic nuclei were observed in kidneys of tacrolimus group. In rats subjected to tacrolimus and pretreated with Epo, there was significant decrease in apoptotic nuclei staining than those in tacrolimus group. Blood trough levels of tacrolimus were significantly higher in erythropoietin-pretreated group, although same amount of tacrolimus was injected with other groups. Results of our study demonstrated significant antiapoptotic effects of erythropoietin on renal tubules, increasing effect of erythropoietin on tacrolimus blood levels, and insignificant antioxidant effects of both erythropoietin and pentoxifylline on renal and pancreas tissues. Study with clinically greater tacrolimus levels may be useful to confirm these findings.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma), lipids, lipoproteins, and adipokines have recently been shown to be associated with psychiatric diseases. Our major aim is to investigate the contribution of the PPAR gamma gene polymorphism, adipokines, lipids, and lipoproteins to the development of major depression. Material and Methods: The frequency of Pro12Ala in exon 2 and C478T in exon 6 of the PPAR gamma gene, lipids and adipokines in major depression (n = 78) and control subjects (n = 64) were analyzed. Genotypes of PPAR gamma gene polymorphisms were examined. Serum leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum apo A1, apo B, and Lp(a) levels were determined by immunonephelometry. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were analyzed by enzymatic methods. Results: The genotypes of exon 2 and exon 6 distribution did not differ between the control subjects and patients with major depression. Frequencies of genotypes of Pro12Ala, and Ala12Ala in exon 2 in overweight and obese patients with major depression were higher than those of overweight and obese controls. C478T polymorphism was highest in overweight and obese patients with major depression. Pro12Ala and Ala12Ala genotypes in exon 2 of PPAR gamma gene in patients were found to be associated with triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol. There were significant differences regarding glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apo B, Lp(a), adiponectin and resistin levels between patient and control subjects. Conclusion: PPAR gamma exon gene polymorphisms, alterations in lipid profile and adipokines may be associated with the development of major depression.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citation Aliyazicioglu R, Guven S, Mentese A, Kolayli S, Cengiz S, Deger O, Alver A. Serum anti-carbonic anhydrase II antibodies and oxidant-antioxidant balance in pre-eclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011; 66: 297–303 Problem The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of anti-carbonic anhydrase II antibodies (anti-CA II) antibodies in pre-eclampsia and the relationships between the autoantibodies, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant capacity (TOC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidative stres index (OSI) parameters. Method of study We studied 40 early and late onset pre-eclamptic patients and 40 healthy pregnant control and 39 healthy non-pregnant control subjects. Serum CA II antibodies, TAC and TOC, and MDA parameters were studied by ELISA. Results The mean values for TAC, TOC, OSI, MDA, and anti-CA II were significantly increased in patients with pre-eclampsia compared to the other groups. The anti-CA II antibody levels for the pregnant control subjects were 0.129 ± 0.04 and that for the pre-eclamptic patients were 0.282 ± 0.18. In this study, any absorbance value higher than 0.136, the mean absorbance + 2 S.D. of pregnant control subjects, was defined as positive. Positive results were obtained in 29 of 40 pre-eclamptic patients (72.5%). There were significant positive correlations between serum anti-CA II antibodies and TOC, MDA levels, and OSI levels. Conclusion The results suggest that anti-CA II antibodies and impairment in oxidant-antioxidant balance may be involved in multifactorial etiology of pre-eclampsia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fatty acid profiles of frequently consumed oils and crops cultivated in Turkey were investigated in regard to omega fatty acids. Analyses were carried out on commercially sold oils, sunflower, olive, and fish oils, and oils extracted from fatty seeds of hazelnut, walnut, olive, sunflower, poppy, sesame, and pumpkin, and butter produced in Turkey. Hazelnut and olive oils were found to be rich in omega-9 (oleic acid 18:1), walnut, poppy seed, sesame, and pumpkin seed were rich in omega-6 (linoleic acid 18:2), and butter was rich in short chain fatty acids and omega-9. Fish oil, from mackerel, was the richest in omega-3 fatty acids and fatty acid diversity. There were some alterations between commercially sold oils and oils extracted from seeds in regard to fatty acid percentages and variety. Keywordsfatty acid–hazelnut–GC-MS–Turkish crops–omega fatty acid
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three different honey extracts from the endemic plant in the Black Sea region Rhododendron ponticum, were investigated for their inhibitory effects against the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 22.214.171.124), more precisely the human (h) isoforms hCA I and hCA II. Hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water solid-phase extractions (SPEs) showed inhibitory activity towards the two CA isozymes which were related to the total phenolic content. The highest inhibitory effects (0.036-0.039 mg/mL) were those of propolis methanolic extract. Among the three different samples investigated here, the aqueous extracts showed lower inhibitory effects compared to the organic solvent SPE extracts (in the range of 1.150- 5.144 mg/mL). The studied honey extracts constitute an interesting source of phenolic derivatives that might serve to identify lead compounds, targeting the physiologically relevant enzymes CA I and CA II.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Ultimate objective of nanoparticles-based therapy is to functionalize them in micro-disease environment without any side effects. Here, we revealed that our nitroxide radical-containing nanoparticles (TEMPONano) disintegrate within renal acidic area by ischemia and act as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to recover from damage. METHODS: TEMPONano was prepared by self assembly of amphiphilic block copolymer possessing nitroxide radicals, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) via amine linkage as a side chain of the hydrophobic segment. The nanoparticle disintegrated at pH below 7.0 due to the protonation of the amino groups in the hydrophobic core, resulting in improvement of ROS scavenging activity. Using renal ischemia-reperfusion model in mice, the therapeutic effect of TEMPONano on ROS damage was evaluated. RESULTS: Contrary to the nitroxide radical-containing nanoparticle without pH-triggered disintegration, the pH-sensitive TEMPONano showed extremely higher ROS scavenging activity and therapeutic effect. The disintegration of pH-sensitive TEMPONano in injured kidney area was confirmed by electron spin resonance spectra, which is first evidence of real therapeutic effect of the environmental-sensitive specific disintegration of nanoparticle worked in vivo. The attenuation of functional and histological indices of injury resulted from the ability of TEMPONano to reduce oxidation of lipid and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokine. Further studies showed the TEMPONano disintegrated in kidney area, although it forms polymeric micelle in blood, which was confirmed by EPR spectra. Moreover, TEMPNano completely prevented the decrease in blood pressure, which is side effect of low-molecular-weight TEMPO derivatives. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, pH-sensitive TEMPONano effectively reduced the renal dysfunction and injury caused by renal ischemia-reperfusion, compared with non-pH-sensitive nanoparticle and low-molecular-weight TEMPO compounds, which was due to the disintegration of TEMPONano under the renal acidic area. View larger version: In this window In a new window Download as PowerPoint Slide
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical and biochemical properties of standard, hybrid, and grafted melons cultivated under the same agricultural conditions in adjacent fields in the Cumra region of Turkey were investigated and compared based on pH, Brix, antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, individual phenolics, sugar, and organic acid values. Seventeen different phenolic constituents were quantified by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The highest phenolic acid variability and content were detected in the standard melon. Sugar and organic acid compositions of melon cultivars were tested by capillary electrophoresis, and significant differences in types and contents of individual sugars and organic acids were determined among the cultivars. Standard Cinikiz Cumra melons had the highest ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and total sugar contents. The fructose/glucose ratio increased three times in grafted melon as compared with standard melon. While sugar alcohol mannitol existed in the standard and hybrid cultivars, this constituent disappeared in the grafted types. Citric acid found in the standard cultivar was not detected in the hybrid and grafted types. Consequently, it was concluded that the nutritional value of melons changed by the application of hybridization, grafting, or standard (open pollinated) production methods. The standard melon was found to have the highest score in terms of taste, because of its highest sweetness and sourness. It was also found preferable because of its high antioxidant activity, total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antioxidant capacity, chemical and physical properties of 6 certificated and 1 uncertificated pekmez (molasses) samples of Turkish varieties were analyzed. All pekmez samples had similar chemical compositions. Total phenolic contents varied from 138 to 243 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g samples. The apricot pekmez had the highest phenolic content (243 +/- 16), while the carob pekmez exhibited the highest DPPH (0.08 +/- 0.01 mg g) radical scavenging activity. DPPH radical scavenging activity was also found to be related to concentrations of the samples. Especially, selenium and other minerals content were found slightly higher in grape pekmez than the others. Present results showed that all the certificated and uncertificated pekmez samples had no any risk in public health and besides their high content of sugar. Each pekmez had antioxidant and high amount of polyphenols and minerals.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of peroxynitrite (PN), a highly toxic agent, on catalase (CAT) activity in fish liver microsomal homogenates was determined. PN was synthesized by mixing acidic hydrogen peroxide solution with sodium nitrite solution and then adding sodium hydroxide solution into the mixture in order to stabilize the highly labile compound peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH) in peroxynitrite anion form (ONOO(- )). The effect of PN and decomposed peroxynitrite (DPN), prepared by preincubation with HCl, was monitored by using a constant amount of homogenate containing the CAT enzyme. Significant losses were observed in the CAT activity of fish liver enzyme after treatment with PN and also with DPN products, the inhibitory effect of PN being slightly more pronounced than that of DPN. IC(50) values were 5.5 and 8.5 microM for PN and DPN, respectively. The PN inhibition of CAT activity is due to both the effects of the secondary and decomposition products of PN and its nitration and oxidation effects on the amino acid residues of the enzyme.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of some minerals, such as Na, K, Ca Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Pb, in honey samples produced and consumed abundantly in Black sea region of Turkey. Three different floral and authentic honey samples, Anzer (n = 6) Bayburt (n = 8) and chestnut honeys (n = 15) were obtained from Black sea region of Turkey and analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (F-AAS). Both of the Anzer and Bayburt honeys are heterofloral and produced from a largest variety of mountain flowers in Anzer plateau near Ikizdere-Rize and Bayburt plateau, in the East-Black sea region of Turkey, respectively. Third group of monofloral botanical origin chestnut honey samples were supplied from Zonguldak in West Black sea region of Turkey. All samples were analyzed after nitric acid digestion. Nine minerals (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Pb) were quantified for each honey sample. Iron, copper, zinc. manganese, calcium, chromium and lead were determined by atomic absorption spectro photometer and potassium, sodium by flame photometer. Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn contents of minerals in honey samples were in the range of 28-41, 564-5007, 173-481, 3.2-6.7, 1.2-2.2, 1.2-17.2 and 1.2-17.2 mu g g(-1), respectively. However, Cr and Pb were below detection limit (0.01 mu g g(-1)) of the flame AAS. The amounts of K, Na and Ca were the most abundant elements in tested honey samples. Anzer honey samples were high in iron and chestnut samples were in manganese. The results showed that mineral contents in the studied 29 honey samples are highly variable and depend on their geographical and botanical origin.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The changes in antioxidant-oxidant balance play important roles in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric conditions. Bipolar disorder (BD) is a psychiatric condition with recurrent mood disturbances. This study evaluates the effects of treatment with lithium, alone or in combination with antipsychotic olanzapine, on oxidant-antioxidant status and atherogenic character in patients with BD. The blood samples from 15 patients were tested before the treatment (pre-treatment phase) and at the ends of two consecutive treatment periods: period I, treatment with lithium and an antipsychotic drug, olanzapine (first 6 months) and period II, treatment with only lithium (6 months following period I). We measured serum atherogenic lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol), plasma lipid peroxides (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) in neutrophils and lymphocytes, and total antioxidant status in plasma. Compared with pre-treatment phase, the lipid parameters were increased with each treatment; especially, LDL-cholesterol was significantly increased only with lithium treatment. These findings alert to be cautious about use of lithium in patients with atherogenic conditions. Moreover, plasma lipid peroxides were decreased significantly after the combination therapy and further decreased with lithium treatment. Antioxidant enzyme activities in lymphocytes were decreased after both types of treatment. Importantly, plasma total antioxidant status was increased only with lithium treatment. Thus, treatment with lithium alone decreases already up-set oxidant status in BD. In conclusion, the combination therapy with olanzapine is better in terms of atherogenic profile, while lithium alone produces better antioxidant status in patients with BD.
Karadeniz Technical University
Atrabazandah, Trabzon, Turkey
- Department of Biochemistry