Rachel Varona

University of the Philippines Diliman, Кесон-Сити, Metro Manila, Philippines

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Publications (2)1.85 Total impact

  • Shiro Ito · Rachel Varona
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    ABSTRACT: This study measured and analyzed the degree of social distance perceived by Japanese nationals towards their Filipino hosts in Manila, the Philippines. The Social Distance Scale (SDS) created by Bogardus (1933) was used for a cross-sectional assessment of 74 Japanese volunteers. Socio-economic data, duration of stay, age, adherence to Japanese traditions, and the extent of personal networks were all related to the SDS scores. There was a 50% resistance to more intimate types of social contact. Attitudes towards 10 nationalities were assessed. Among these, Filipinos ranked third in terms of closeness. Some socio-political explanations for these findings are advanced. This study is the first to analyze the closeness felt by expatriates towards their hosts, and provides an initial exploration of how the Bogardus method can be adapted to an Asian setting.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Asia-Pacific Social Science Review
  • Rachel Varona · Tami Saito · Miyako Takahashi · Ichiro Kai
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to describe the present caregiving situation of Filipino adult-child caregivers (CGs) particularly aiming to identify the predictors of CG burden and to assess the effect of social support on stressors and perception of burden. A cross-sectional survey employing face-to-face interviews with 193 adult-child CGs in Davao City, Philippines, measured the perception of burden using the Cost of Care Index (CCI) by Kosberg and Cairl. Results indicated the majority were daughter CGs living with their elderly parents, who were receiving high levels of informal social support. A moderate to high level of burden perception (mean+/-S.D. score of 47.0+/-9.1) was found among respondents. CGs with higher educational attainment showed low burden perception. However, higher family income and higher State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) anxiety scores were associated with higher burden perception. Also, longer caregiving hours, a male care recipient (CR), and the presence of CR's memory and behavior problems predicted higher CG burden. The interaction between stressors and perceived burden showed that social support provided a buffering effect for CGs experiencing higher burden perception. This suggests that respite and support resources including community-based counseling and education programs to assist CGs in dealing with stress may positively contribute to reduce burden.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics

Publication Stats

11 Citations
1.85 Total Impact Points


  • 2010
    • University of the Philippines Diliman
      Кесон-Сити, Metro Manila, Philippines
  • 2007
    • Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences
      Edo, Tokyo, Japan