[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the experiences and concerns of women participating in a short-term AZT intervention feasibility study to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission at three sites in India. The study used qualitative methods to examine the experiences of 31 women during late pregnancy, delivery and at post-natal visits. It also elicited the perspectives of 19 healthcare providers. Frequent visits required during late-pregnancy and the post-natal period presented concerns for the women in the study. Women's understanding of the long-term implications of participating in the intervention study was poor, and living with uncertainty about the HIV status of the newborn was a major concern. The provision of psychosocial support is essential in future intervention studies and should be incorporated on an ongoing basis. Networking with women-centred support groups may be helpful in enabling women to gain the long-term benefits of this type of intervention.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Culture Health & Sexuality
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Access to safe breast-feeding alternatives for HIV-infected mothers and their infants in many settings is limited. We compared the rates of early postpartum hospitalization of infants born to HIV-infected mothers using different infant-feeding practices in a large government hospital in Pune, India. From March 1, 2000 to November 30, 2001, infants born to HIV-infected mothers were followed in a postpartum clinic. All mothers had received a standard short course of antenatal zidovudine. Infant-feeding practices were assessed within 3 d of delivery, prior to postpartum hospital discharge. Sixty-two of 148 mothers (42%) were breast-feeding their infants. Eighty-six of the mothers (58%) were providing replacement feeding, primarily diluted cow, goat or buffalo milk (top feeding). Twenty-one of the 148 participating infants (14.2%) born during the study period required hospitalization within the 1st 6 mo of life and 6 infants required repeat hospitalization. All hospitalized infants were receiving replacement feeding with a rate of 0.093 hospitalizations per 100 person-days (95% CI, 0.062 to 0.136). The reasons for hospitalization included acute gastroenteritis (48.1%), pneumonia (18.5%), septicemia (11.1%) and jaundice (11.1%). A high risk for early postpartum hospitalization was seen in replacement-fed infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Pune, India. In settings such as India, where access to safe replacement feeding is limited, interventions making exclusive breast-feeding safer for HIV-infected mothers and infants are needed. Such interventions would be valuable additions to the very effective national prevention programs that currently rely on the provision of short-course zidovudine and nevirapine.
Preview · Article · Nov 2003 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efforts to prevent HIV transmission from mother to infants in settings like India may benefit from the availability of reliable methods for rapid and simple HIV screening. Data from India on the reliability of rapid HIV test kits are limited and there are no data on the use of rapid HIV tests for screening of pregnant women.
Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic and delivery room in Pune agreed to participate in an evaluation of five rapid HIV tests, including (a) a saliva brush test (Oraquick HIV-1/2, Orasure Technologies Inc.), (b) a rapid plasma test (Oraquick HIV-1/2) and (c) three rapid finger prick tests (Oraquick HIV-1/2; HIV-1/2 Determine, Abbott; NEVA HIV-1/2 Cadila). Results of the rapid tests were compared with three commercial plasma enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests (Innotest HIV AB EIA, Lab systems/ELISCAN HIV AB EIA, UBI HIV Ab EIA).
Between September 2000 and October 1, 2001, 1258 pregnant women were screened for HIV using these rapid tests. Forty-four (3.49%) of the specimens were HIV-antibody-positive by at least two plasma EIA tests. All of the rapid HIV tests demonstrated excellent specificity (96-100%). The sensitivity of the rapid tests ranged from 75-94%. The combined sensitivity and specificity of a two-step algorithm for rapid HIV testing was excellent for a number of combinations of the five rapid finger stick tests.
In this relatively low HIV prevalence population of pregnant women in India, the sensitivity of the rapid HIV tests varied, when compared to a dual EIA algorithm. In general, the specificity of all the rapid tests was excellent, with very few false positive HIV tests. Based upon these data, two different rapid HIV tests for screening pregnant women in India would be highly sensitive, with excellent specificity to reliably prevent inappropriate use of antiretroviral therapy for prevention of vertical HIV transmission.
No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · International Journal of STD & AIDS