[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess comorbid DSM-IV-TR Axis I disorders in adolescent inpatients referred for treatment of substance use disorders.
151 patients (mean age 16.95 years, SD = 1.76; range 13 - 22) were consecutively assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and standardized clinical questionnaires to assess mental disorders, symptom distress, psychosocial variables and detailed aspects of drug use. A consecutively referred subgroup of these 151 patients consisting of 65 underage patients (mean age 16.12, SD = 1.10; range 13 - 17) was additionally assessed with the modules for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) using The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for school-aged children (K-SADS-PL).
128 (84.8%) of the 151 patients were dependent on at least one substance, the remaining patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria for abuse only. 40.5% of the participants fulfilled criteria for at least one comorbid present Axis I disorder other than substance use disorders (67.7% in the subgroup additionally interviewed with the K-SADS-PL). High prevalences of present mood disorder (19.2%), somatoform disorders (9.3%), and anxiety disorders (22.5%) were found. The 37 female participants showed a significantly higher risk for lifetime comorbid disorders; the gender difference was significantly pronounced for anxiety and somatoform disorders. Data from the underage subgroup revealed a high prevalence for present CD (41.5%). 33% of the 106 patients (total group) who were within the mandatory school age had not attended school for at least a two-month period prior to admission. In addition, 51.4% had been temporarily expelled from school at least once.
The present data validates previous findings of high psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent patients with substance use disorders. The high rates of school refusal and conduct disorder indicate the severity of psychosocial impairment.
Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Kaufman-Test zur Intelligenzmessung (K-TIM) is the German-language adaptation of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test, serving the sophisticated assessment of intellectual abilities within the age range from 11 to over 85 years. Founded on the respective models of cognitive development by Horn and Cattell, Luria, and Piaget, the battery comprises 10 subtests, structured into fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, and assessment of delayed recall, reflecting the test concept.
In addition to early trials during the translation and adaptation as well as the novel construction of items with a high verbal or cultural load, studies to evaluate test criteria were performed stepwise. Norms for the final version were developed using a sample of 2,320 persons from Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and South Tyrol. Also, test criteria were analyzed again.
Test reliability was very high (.96 to .98 for the scales). Validity of the developmental criterion important in adolescence, and that of the construct criterion was ensured by means of correlational and factor analyses. Concurrent validity was confirmed using correlational studies with other tests as external criteria.
The adaptation did not result in any structural changes within the test concept. For the German-speaking countries as well the K-TIM is thus an interesting alternative to the differential assessment of intelligence in adolescents.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie