[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen causing severe diseases in humans worldwide. Currently, there is no specific treatment available for EHEC infection and the use of conventional antibiotics is contraindicated. Therefore, identification of potential therapeutic targets and development of effective measures to control and treat EHEC infection are needed. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are surface glycolipids found on the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, including EHEC, and LPS biosynthesis has long been considered as potential anti-bacterial target. Here, we demonstrated that the EHEC rfaD gene that functions in the biosynthesis of the LPS inner core is required for the intestinal colonization and pathogenesis of EHEC in vivo. Disruption of the EHEC rfaD confers attenuated toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans and less bacterial colonization in the intestine of C. elegans and mouse. Moreover, rfaD is also involved in the control of susceptibility of EHEC to antimicrobial peptides and host intestinal immunity. It is worth noting that rfaD mutation did not interfere with the growth kinetics when compared to the wild-type EHEC cells. Taken together, we demonstrated that mutations of the EHEC rfaD confer hypersusceptibility to host intestinal innate immunity in vivo, and suggested that targeting the RfaD or the core LPS synthesis pathway may provide alternative therapeutic regimens for EHEC infection.
Full-text Article · Aug 2016 · Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) is the predominant treatment in esophageal cancer, however resistance to therapy and tumor recurrence are exceedingly common. Elevated ERBB2/Her2 may be at least partially responsible for both the high rates of recurrence and resistance to CCRT. This receptor tyrosine kinase is upregulated in 10-20% of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues, and amplification of ERBB2 has been correlated with poor prognosis in esophageal cancer. Tissues from 131 ESCC patients, along with cell and animal models of the disease were used to probe the underlying mechanisms by which ERBB2 upregulation occurs and causes negative outcomes in ESCC. We found that overexpression of ERBB2 inhibited radiosensitivity in vitro. Furthermore, miR-193a-5p reduced ERBB2 expression by directly targeting the 3'UTR. Increased miR-193a-5p enhanced radiosensitivity and inhibited tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, low miR-193a-5p expression correlated with poor prognosis in ESCC patients, and ESCC patients with good CCRT response exhibited higher miR-193a-5p expression. Our data suggest that patients with high miR-193a-5p will likely benefit from CCRT treatment alone, however a combination of CCRT with Herceptin may be beneficial for patients with low miR-193a-5p expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Recent studies have reported that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppressed oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to examine whether the activation of AMPK in the brain decreased Rac1-induced ROS generation, thereby reducing blood pressure (BP) in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. The inhibition of ROS by treatment with an AMPK activator (oral resveratrol, 10 mg/kg/day) for 1 week decreased the BP and increased the NO production in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) of fructose-fed rats but not in control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. In addition, resveratrol treatment abolished the Rac1-induced increases in the activity of the NADPH oxidase subunits p22-phox and reduced the activity of SOD2, while treatment with an AMPK inhibitor (compound C, 40 μM/day) had the opposite effect, in the fructose-fed rats. Interestingly, the activation of AMPK abolished Rac1 activation and decreased BP by inducing the activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RSK) and nNOS phosphorylation in the fructose-fed rats. We conclude that the activation of AMPK decreased BP, abolished ROS generation, and enhanced ERK1/2-RSK-nNOS pathway activity by negatively regulating Racl-induced NADPH oxidase levels in the RVLM during oxidative stress–associated hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Acute cardiomyopathy is a health problem worldwide. Few studies have shown an association between acute cardiomyopathy and low vitamin D status. Paricalcitol, a vitamin D receptor activator, clinically benefits patients with advanced kidney disease. The effect of paricalcitol supplement on cardiac remodeling in cardiomyopathic rats is unknown. This experimental study investigated the effect of paricalcitol in rats with cardiomyopathy induced by isoproterenol.
Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study.
Hospital-affiliated animal research institution.
Eight-week-old male Wistar-Kyoto rats.
Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were first injected intraperitoneally with isoproterenol to create a rat model of acute cardiomyopathy. Then paricalcitol was administered intraperitoneally to isoproterenol-injected rats at a dosage of 200 ng three times a week for 3 weeks. Relevant cardiomyopathy-related variables were measured regularly in three groups of rats, controls, isoproterenol, and isoproterenol plus paricalcitol. Rat hearts were obtained for evaluation of cardiac fibrosis using Masson trichrome staining and commercially available software, and evaluation of cell transition using immunofluorescence staining analysis.
Measurements and main results:
Isoproterenol infusions generated significant cardiac fibrosis (p < 0.001). Subsequent paricalcitol treatment attenuated the isoproterenol-induced cardiac fibrosis (p = 0.006). Fluorescence showed colocalization of endothelial and fibroblast cell markers (cluster differentiation 31 and α-smooth muscle actin, respectively) in the isoproterenol-treated hearts. Paricalcitol injections attenuated the isoproterenol-induced fluorescence intensity of two cell markers (p < 0.01).
Paricalcitol injections may ameliorate isoproterenol-induced cardiac fibrosis possibly through regulating cell transition.
Full-text Article · Apr 2016 · Critical care medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Rationale:
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carries a poor survival rate mainly due to metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern NSCLC metastasis are undescribed. Huntingtin interacting protein-1 (HIP1) is known to play a role in tumorigenesis, we tested the involvement of HIP1 in NSCLC progression and metastasis.
HIP1 expression was measured in human NSCLC tumors and correlation with survival outcome was evaluated. Furthermore, we investigated the ability of HIP1 to suppress a metastasis. The molecular mechanism by which HIP1 contributes to suppress metastasis was investigated.
We used tissue arrays containing samples from 121 NSCLC patients to analyze HIP1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In order to investigate the role of HIP1 expression on metastasis, we evaluated cellular mobility, migration and invasion using lung adenocarcinoma (AdCA) cells with modified HIP1 expression levels. The human disease mouse models with the same cells were applied to evaluate the HIP1 suppressing metastasis and its mechanism in vivo.
Measurements and main results:
HIP1 expression in AdCA progression was found to be an early-stage prognostic biomarker, with low expression correlated to poor prognosis. We also found HIP1 to be a metastatic suppressor in AdCA. HIP1 significantly repressed the mobility of lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, and regulated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by repressing AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling.
HIP1 serves as an early-stage prognostic biomarker and a metastatic suppressor. Reduced expression during AdCA progression can relieve HIP1 suppression of Akt-mediated EMT and thereby lead to development of late metastases and poor prognosis.
Full-text Article · Nov 2015 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 1 (GIT1) is participated in cell movement activation, which is a fundamental process during tissue development and cancer progression. GIT1/PIX forming a functional protein complex that contributes to Rac1/Cdc42 activation, resulting in increasing cell mobility. Although the importance of Rac1/Cdc42 activation is well documented in cancer aggressiveness, the clinical importance of GIT1 remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the clinical significance of GIT1 expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and also verified the importance of GIT1-Rac1/Cdc42 axis in stimulating NSCLC cell mobility. The result indicated higher GIT1 expression patients had significantly poorer prognoses in disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with lower GIT1 expression patients. Higher GIT1 expression was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis and associated with migration/invasion of NSCLC cells in transwell assay. In vivo studies indicated that GIT1 promotes metastasis of NSCLC cells. Finally, GIT1 was found to stimulate migration/invasion by altering the activity of Rac1/Cdc42 in NSCLC cells. Together, the GIT1 expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC. GIT1 is critical for the invasiveness of NSCLC cells through stimulating the activity of Rac1/Cdc42.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
In lung cancer, uPA, its receptor (uPAR), and the inhibitors PAI-1 and PAI-2 of the plasminogen activator family interact with MMP-2 and MMP-9 of the MMP family to promote cancer progression. However, it remains undetermined which of these markers plays the most important role and may be the most useful indicator to stratify the patients by risk.
We determined the individual prognostic value of these 6 markers by analyzing a derivation cohort with 98 non-small cell lung cancer patients by immunohistochemical staining. The correlation between the IHC expression levels of these markers and disease prognosis was investigated, and an immunohistochemical panel for prognostic prediction was subsequently generated through prognostic model analysis. The value of the immunohistochemical panel was then verified by a validation cohort with 91 lung cancer patients.
In derivation cohort, PAI-2 is the most powerful prognostic factor (HR = 2.30; P = 0.001), followed by MMP-9 (HR = 2.09; P = 0.019) according to multivariate analysis. When combining PAI-2 and MMP-9, the most unfavorable prognostic group (low PAI-2 and high MMP-9 IHC expression levels) showed a 6.40-fold increased risk of a poor prognosis compared to the most favorable prognostic group (high PAI-2 and low MMP-9 IHC expression levels). PAI-2 and MMP-9 IHC panel could more precisely identify high risk patients in both derivation and validation cohort.
We revealed PAI-2 as the most powerful prognostic marker among PA and MMP protease family even after considering their close relationships with each other. By utilizing a combination of PAI-2 and MMP-9, more precise prognostic information than merely using pathological stage alone can be obtained for lung cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Pancreatic beta-cells are particularly susceptible to fatty-acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis. To understand how beta-cells sense fatty acid stimuli and translate into a long-term adaptive response, we investigated whether palmitic acid (PA) regulates early growth response-1 (Egr-1), an immediate-early transcription factor, which is induced by many environmental stimuli and implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. We found that Egr-1 was rapidly and transiently induced by PA in MIN6 insulinoma cells, which was accompanied by calcium influx and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Calcium chelation and MEK1/2 inhibition blocked PA-induced Egr-1 upregulation, suggesting that PA induces Egr-1 expression through a calcium influx-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade. Knockdown of Egr-1 increased PA-induced caspase-3 activation and ER stress markers and decreased PA-induced Akt phosphorylation and insulin secretion and signaling. Akt replenishment and insulin supplementation rescued PA-induced apoptosis in Egr-1 knockdown cells. These results suggest that the absence of Egr-1 loses its ability to couple the short-term insulin/Akt pathway to long-term survival adaptation. Finally, Egr-1-deficient mouse islets are more susceptible to ex vivo stimuli of apoptosis. In human pancreatic tissues, EGR1 expression correlated with expression of ER stress markers and anti-apoptotic gene. In conclusion, Egr-1 is induced by PA and further attempts to rescue beta-cells from ER stress and apoptosis through improving insulin/Akt signaling. Our study underscores Egr-1 as a critical early sensor in pancreatic beta-cells to translate fatty acid stimuli into a cellular adaptation mechanism.
Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Disclosed herein are novel 4-anilinofuro[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives of formula (I):
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein each of the substituents is given the definition as set forth in the Specification and Claims.
Also disclosed are the preparation processes of these derivatives and their uses in the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions and in the treatment of cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) has been reported to be a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers, including prostate cancer. WWOX can induce apoptotic responses to inhibit tumor progression, and the other mechanisms of WWOX in tumor suppression have also been reported recently. In this study, we found significant down-regulation of WWOX in prostate cancer specimens and prostate cancer cell lines compared with the normal controls. In addition, an ectopically increased WWOX expression repressed tumor progression both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, overexpression of WWOX in 22Rv1 cells led to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase but did not affect sub-G1 in flow cytometry. GFP-WWOX overexpressed 22Rv1 cells were shown to inhibit cell cycle progression into mitosis under nocodazole treatment in flow cytometry, immunoblotting and GFP fluorescence. Further, cyclin D1 but not apoptosis correlated genes were down-regulated by WWOX both in vitro and in vivo. Restoration of cyclin D1 in the WWOX-overexpressed 22Rv1 cells could abolish the WWOX-mediated tumor repression. In addition, WWOX impair c-Jun-mediated cyclin D1 promoter activity. These results suggest that WWOX inhibits prostate cancer progression through negatively regulating cyclin D1 in cell cycle lead to G1 arrest. In summary, our data reveal a novel mechanism of WWOX in tumor suppression.
Full-text Article · Feb 2015 · Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase which plays a critical role in many diseases including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The essential role of Pin1 is to affect stability, localization or function of phosphoproteins by catalyzing structural changes. Among the collection of Pin1 substrates, many have been shown to be involved in regulating cell cycle progression. The cell cycle disorder caused by dysregulation of these substrates is believed to be a common phenomenon in cancer. A number of recent studies have revealed possible functions of several important Pin1-binding cell cycle regulators. Investigating the involvement of Pin1 in the cell cycle may assist in the development of future cancer therapeutics. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the network of Pin1 substrates and Pin1 regulators in cell cycle progression. In G1/S progression, cyclin D1, RB, p53, p27, and cyclin E are all well-known cell cycle regulators that are modulated by Pin1. During G2/M transition, our lab has shown that Aurora A suppresses Pin1 activity through phosphorylation at Ser16 and cooperates with hBora to modulate G2/M transition. We conclude that Pin1 may be thought of as a molecular timer which modulates cell cycle progression networks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
Pin1 promotes oncogenesis by regulating multiple oncogenic signaling. In this study, we investigated the involvement of Pin1 in tumor progression and in the prognosis of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).ResultsWe observed that proliferation, clonogenicity and tumorigenesis of CE81T cells were inhibited by Pin1 knockdown. We next analyzed Pin1 expression in clinical ESCC specimens. When compared to the corresponding non-tumor part, Pin1 protein and mRNA levels in tumor part were higher in 84% and 62% patients, respectively. By immunohistochemistry, we identified that high Pin1 expression was associated with higher primary tumor stage (p = 0.035), higher overall cancer stage (p = 0.047) and poor overall survival (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the association between expression of Pin1 and levels of ß-catenin and cyclin D in cell line and clinical specimens was evaluated. ß-catenin and cyclin D1 were decreased in CE81T cells with Pin1 knockdown. Cyclin D1 level correlated with Pin1 expression in clinical ESCC specimens.Conclusions
Pin1 upregulation was associated with advanced stage and poor prognosis of ESCC. Pin1 knockdown inhibited aggressiveness of ESCC cells. ß-catenin and cyclin D1 were positively regulated by Pin1. These results indicated that targeting Pin1 pathway could represent a potential modality for treating ESCC.
Full-text Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Biomedical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Rationale: Metabolic alterations contribute to cancer development and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms relating metabolism to cancer metastasis remain largely unknown. Objectives: To identify a key metabolic enzyme that is aberrantly overexpressed in invasive lung cancer cells and to investigate its functional role and prognostic value in lung cancer. Methods: The differential expression of metabolic enzymes in non-invasive CL1-0 cells and invasive CL1-5 cells was analyzed by a gene expression microarray. The expression of target genes in clinical specimens from lung cancer patients was examined by immunohistochemistry. Pharmacological and gene knockdown/overexpression approaches were used to investigate the function of the target gene during invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. The association between the target gene expression and clinicopathological parameters was further analyzed. Bioinformatic analyses were used to discover the signaling pathways involved in target gene-regulated invasion/migration. Measurements and Main Results: Squalene synthase (SQS) was up-regulated in CL1-5 cells and in the tumor regions of the lung cancer specimens. Loss of function or knockdown of SQS significantly inhibited invasion/migration and metastasis in cell and animal models and vice versa. High expression of SQS was significantly associated with poor prognosis among lung cancer patients. Mechanistically, SQS contributed to a lipid-raft-localized enrichment of tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) in a cholesterol-dependent manner, which resulted in the enhancement of NF-κB activation leading to MMP1 up-regulation. Conclusions: Up-regulation of SQS promotes metastasis of lung cancer by enhancing TNFR1 and NF-κB activation and MMP1 expression. Targeting SQS may have considerable potential as a novel therapeutic strategy to treat metastatic lung cancer.
Full-text Article · Aug 2014 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The transcriptional network of the SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 17 (SOX17) and the prognostic impact of SOX17 protein expression in human cancers remain largely unclear. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic effect of low SOX17 protein expression and its dysregulation of transcriptional network in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Low SOX17 protein expression was found in 47.4% (73 of 154) of ESCC patients with predicted poor prognosis. Re-expression of SOX17 in ESCC cells caused reduced foci formation, cell motility, decreased ESCC xenograft growth and metastasis in animals. Knockdown of SOX17 increased foci formation in ESCC and normal esophageal cells. Notably, 489 significantly differential genes involved in cell growth and motility controls were identified by expression array upon SOX17 overexpression and 47 genes contained putative SRY element in their promoters. Using quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR and promoter activity assays, we confirmed that MACC1, MALAT1, NBN, NFAT5, CSNK1A1, FN1 and SERBP1 genes were suppressed by SOX17 via the SRY binding-mediated transcriptional regulation. Overexpression of FN1 and MACC1 abolished SOX17-mediated migration and invasion suppression. The inverse correlation between SOX17 and FN1 protein expression in ESCC clinical samples further strengthened our conclusion that FN1 is a transcriptional repression target gene of SOX17. This study provides compelling clinical evidence that low SOX17 protein expression is a prognostic biomarker and novel cell and animal data of SOX17-mediated suppression of ESCC metastasis. We establish the first transcriptional network and identify new suppressive downstream genes of SOX17 which can be potential therapeutic targets for ESCC.
Full-text Article · Aug 2014 · International Journal of Cancer