[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To verify the temporal trends of the indicators of overall mortality and hospital morbidity due to diarrheal disease in children younger than 1 year and between 1 and 4 years, according to the region of Brazil, between 2000 and 2010.
This was an ecological study of temporal series. Data on hospital admission authorization, mean length of stay, and mean value of the authorization were obtained from the Hospital Information System. The number of infant deaths was obtained from the Mortality Information System; information on live births and the general population were obtained from the Information System on Live Births and Demographic Censuses, respectively. These data were available at the website of the informatics department of the Brazilian Unified Health System/Ministry of Health
Mortality due to diarrheal disease in Brazil showed a downwards trend in both age groups. Regarding hospitalization, there was a slight downwards trend in children younger than 1 year and a non-significant upwards trend between 1-4 years, with a shorter hospital stay and lower mean value of hospital stay, regardless of age and region. The North and Northeast had the highest mortality rates and the highest percentage of hospitalizations in children younger than 1 year. The Midwest had the highest mean annual reduction in hospital stay.
Currently, the indicators of overall mortality and hospital morbidity due to diarrhea in Brazilian children are generally lower, but decreasing slowly.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Jornal de pediatria
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although previous studies have shown successful treatment of persistent diarrhea (PD) with the use of yogurt-based diets, some recent ones speculate the need of special formulas for the nutritional management of PD complicated cases. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the consumption of 3 lactose-free diets, with different degrees of complexity, is associated with lower stool output and shorter duration of diarrhea when compared with the use of a yogurt-based one on the nutritional management of PD. A total of 154 male infants, aged between 1 and 30 months, with PD and with or without dehydration, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Throughout the study, the patients were placed in a metabolic unit; their body weights and intakes of oral rehydration solution, water, and formula diets, in addition to outputs of stool, urine, and vomit, were measured and recorded at 24-hour intervals. Four different diets were used in this study: diet 1, yogurt-based formula; diet 2, soy-based formula; diet 3, hydrolyzed protein-based formula; and diet 4, amino acid-based formula. Throughout the study, only these formula diets were fed to the children. The data showed that children fed the yogurt-based diet (diet 1) or the amino acid-based diet (diet 4) had a significant reduction in stool output and in the duration of diarrhea. The use of an inexpensive and worldwide-available yogurt-based diet is recommended as the first choice for the nutritional management of mild to moderate PD. For the few complicated PD cases, when available, a more complex amino acid-based diet should be reserved for the nutritional management of these unresponsive and severe presentations. Soy-based or casein-based diets do not offer any specific advantage or benefits and do not seem to have a place in the management of PD.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Nutrition research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleotides have been identified as conditionally essential nutrients. As prevention studies, conducted with nucleotide-supplemented formula, have shown statistically significant decrease in the risk of diarrhea, we tested the hypothesis that the consumption of nucleotide-supplemented formula during an acute diarrhea episode is associated with therapeutic effects in the treatment of infants with acute diarrhea and dehydration. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in which patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. The "test" group consumed a nucleotide-supplemented infant formula and the "control" group consumed a nonsupplemented formula. Infants were accommodated in a metabolic unit where body weight, and all intakes and outputs were recorded at 24-hour intervals during hospitalization. Laboratory parameters including blood gases and electrolytes were monitored during hospitalization. Eighty-one male infants ranging in age from older than 1 month and younger than 1 year, with acute non-cholera diarrhea and dehydration were studied. Primary outcomes were stool output and duration of diarrhea and did not differ significantly between the groups, with a stool output of 304.2 (SD 254.0) vs 350.3 (SD 269.1) g/kg and a duration of diarrhea of 83.3 (SD 44.5) vs 88.8 (SD 46.6) for the test and control groups, respectively. Anemia was highly prevalent and breast-feeding practice was not frequent in both groups. The average energy intake and weight gain were similar in the 2 groups. This study demonstrated that nucleotide supplementation of infant formula during episodes of acute diarrhea has no therapeutic advantage compared to conventional infant formula.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Nutrition research