[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Olfactory communication in cats is of major importance. It is rather complex and includes pheromone-driven and classical odour-based communication. Cats use various marking behaviours to transmit pheromone signals: appeasing markings that have a calming effect and alarm markings that can exacerbate stress. On the other hand, classical odours could possibly complete, modify, synergise, or add to pheromone-driven communication in felines, including in the domestic cat. One of the best known natural odours able to produce an identified behavioural sequence in Felidae is nepetalactone, from Nepeta plant species. A relationship is suspected to exist between nepetalactone and pheromone production in cats. We hypothesised that nepetalactone may have a synergistic or additive action with appeasing pheromones in domestic cats.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, The
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nutritional support is vital to the recovery process for critically-ill patients, due to the frequent decrease of voluntary food intake, putting these patients at a major risk for malnutrition, which can result in a catabolic state (Windsor 2004; Eirmann and Michel 2009). As such, nausea, pain, some administered drugs and anxiety over hospitalisation can reduce appetite (Delaney 2006). However many patients in the recovery phase do not receive enteral nutritional support specifically adapted for their critical state. In fact, solid nutrition cannot be given to some patients because of recurrent vomiting or asthenia, or the food is simply not accepted by the anorectic patient (Will and others 2005). There is great interest in providing small volumes of liquid nutrition that are highly digestible and palatable for critical patients, because this could potentially increase the willingness to eat in sick animals and facilitate the first intake of food. Unfortunately liquid supplements containing useful nutrients are not always practically available or are not sufficiently palatable. One of the challenges of early, spontaneous re-feeding is to awaken interest in food in the patient in order to decrease the probability of nutritional failure. Voluntary uptake from the animal facilitates compliance whereas forced and repetitive administrations may induce aggressive responses and even nutritional aversion, especially in cats (Forman 2009). Voluntary uptake is considered beneficial in veterinary medicine (European Medicines Agency 2014). Thus, palatability is considered to be an essential criterion for a nutritional supplement designed for the re-feeding of cats and dogs. In companion animals, palatability refers to the voluntary ingestion of a food or a medicine. While palatability depends on the taste of the product, it is also influenced by the smell, texture, the aspect or the nutritional content (especially animal proteins) of the product (Tôrres and others 2003; Thombre 2004).
Early re-feeding in weakened animals is essential for several reasons. First, it prevents damage to the cells lining the gastro-intestinal tract and avoids bacterial translocation or gut-derived sepsis. In particular, it is crucial after surgery in order to help the animal recuperate more efficiently and effectively, by ensuring optimal functioning of the immune system. Secondly, early re-feeding delivers fluids and provides essential recovery nutrients (Andersen and others 2011; Deitch 2013). The supplement of necessary nutrients enterally in the very early post-operative period is recommended to avoid intestinal villi atrophy, which can severely impair the absorption of nutrients into the blood. A study in neonatal piglets has shown that total parenteral nutrition leads to mucosal atrophy in the jejunum within 24 hours (Niinikoski and others 2004).
Another study has demonstrated that the provision of enteral nutrition in mice receiving total parenteral nutrition prevented villi atrophy compared to mice that received total parenteral nutrition without enteral nutrition. The intestinal villi atrophy observed in the group receiving total parenteral nutrition was likely due to the lack of enteral feeding and not to the total parenteral nutrition solution itself since both groups of mice received parenteral nutrition (Wildhaber and others 2005). These findings stress the importance of early enteral re-feeding.
Nutribound® is a new liquid supplement for dogs and cats that need early nutritional support in various situations. This product provides water and necessary nutrients, including arginine, glutamine, taurine, essential fatty acids, prebiotics and vitamins. The main objective of this study was to assess the palatability of Nutribound® in dogs and cats. A second objective was to evaluate the impact of Nutribound® on food and water intake in cats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Intestinal phosphate binders, uremic toxin binders and some other types of supplements are an integral part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in various species, including cats. This pathology in domestic carnivores requires life-long nutritional and medical management. In this context, the compliance of owners and patients cannot be achieved without an adequate level of palatability for oral medication or supplementation. Knowing that hyporexia and anorexia are among the most commonly seen clinical signs in cats suffering from CKD this is already, in itself, a serious obstacle to acceptable compliance in sick animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the palatability of four commercially available products designed for cats suffering from CKD: Ipakitine® (Vetoquinol, France), Azodyl® (Vetoquinol, USA), Renalzin® (Bayer, France), Rubenal® (Vetoquinol, France) and an additional recently developed product: Pronefra® (Virbac, France). The study was performed with a group of previously-characterised cats, all living in an enriched and well-being securing environment of an independent centre housing panels of pets expert in palatability measurement. In total 172 monadic testings were performed. The palatability of each product was assessed by measuring their rates of prehension and consumption, and the consumption proportions were also analysed.
The most palatable presentation (based on useful consumption) was Pronefra®, which was significantly higher than Azodyl® (p = 0.046), Ipakitine® (p < 0.0001), Renalzin® (p < 0.0001) and Rubenal® (p < 0.0001). The product with the highest rate of prehension was also Pronefra®, which was significantly higher than Azodyl® (p = 0.0019), Ipakitine® (p = 0.0023), Renalzin® (p = 0.0008) and Rubenal® (p < 0.0001).
Pronefra® was the most palatable presentation tested, meaning it may be useful for improving ease of supplementation in CKD cats.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Irish Veterinary Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of a combination of calcium and magnesium carbonate intestinal phosphate binders, associated with natural reno-protectant substances (the uraemic toxin binder chitosan, vasoactive peptides and an extract of Astragalus membranaceus) (Pronefra®, Virbac, France) on blood parameters and mineral balance in cats. Ten cats, 2 to 5 years old at day 0, were given the supplement with their normal food for 12 weeks at 0.5ml/kg/d. Plasma creatinine and phosphorus levels decreased significantly during the study period (p=0.016, p=0.002 respectively). Fractional excretion of phosphorus was significantly lower at the end of the study than at the beginning (p=0.02), and a significant correlation (p=0.002) was found between changes in blood creatinine and changes in urinary fractional excretion of phosphorus between days 0 and 84. All calcium and magnesium blood levels remained within normal ranges throughout the study. Pronefra®, a new palatable oral supplement, was shown to be safe over 12 weeks of continuous use, and not only efficiently reduced blood phosphorus levels, but also creatinaemia. This is likely to be an indirect indicator reflecting an overall improvement of renal function. Pronefra® may, therefore, represent an interesting new supportive option in cats suffering from renal disorders from the earliest stages after diagnosis.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, The
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: . To determine the effects of selenomethionine (Se-met) and epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) on gene expression, activation of mitogen-activating kinases, and DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and apolipoprotein-1 (AP-1) in articular chondrocytes.
Chondrocytes, cultured in low-oxygen tension, were pretreated with L-selenomethionine or EGCg for 24 h, followed by interleukin 1 (IL-1beta) for 1 h (nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts) or 24 h (RNA extraction). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, -3, -13), aggrecanases (-1, -2), IL-1beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenases (-1, -2), type II collagen and aggrecan, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1, -2, -3) and their receptors I and II. Activity of mitogen-activating protein kinases (MAPK) was assayed by Western blot and AP-1/NF-kB DNA binding by electrophoretic mobility shift assay.
Pretreatment with 0.5 microM Se-met prevented IL-1beta-induced MMP-1 and aggrecanase-1 expression, and reduced the cytokine inhibitory effect on type II collagen, aggrecan core protein, and TGF-beta receptor II (TGF-betaRII) mRNA levels. EGCg was more efficient in modulating the effects of IL-1beta on the genes studied. Whereas EGCg inhibited the IL-1beta-activated MAPK, NF-kappaB, and AP-1, Se-met stimulated that signaling pathway. This could account for the differential effects exerted by these antioxidants on chondrocytes.
Our data provide insights into the mechanisms whereby ECGg and selenium modulate chondrocyte metabolism. Despite their differential mechanisms of action, the 2 compounds may exert global beneficial effects on articular cartilage.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · The Journal of Rheumatology