[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an essential staging tool in patients with clinically localized melanoma. The harvesting of a sentinel lymph node entails a sequence of procedures with participation of specialists in nuclear medicine, radiology, surgery and pathology. The aim of this document is to provide guidelines for nuclear medicine physicians performing lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node detection in patients with melanoma.
These practice guidelines were written and have been approved by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) to promote high-quality lymphoscintigraphy. The final result has been discussed by distinguished experts from the EANM Oncology Committee, national nuclear medicine societies, the European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO) and the European Association for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) melanoma group. The document has been endorsed by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI).
The present practice guidelines will help nuclear medicine practitioners play their essential role in providing high-quality lymphatic mapping for the care of melanoma patients.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · European Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Cutaneous melanoma incidence is increasing. Most new cases are thin (≤ 1 mm) with favorable prognoses, but survival is nonetheless variable. Our aim was to investigate new prognostic factors and construct a nomogram for predicting survival in individual patients.
Patients and methods:
Data from 2,243 patients with thin melanoma were retrieved from prospectively maintained databases at six centers. Kaplan-Meier survival and crude cumulative incidences of recurrence were estimated, and competing risks were taken into account. Multivariable Cox regression was used to investigate survival predictors.
Median follow-up was 124 months (interquartile range, 106 to 157 months); 12-year overall survival was 85.3% (95% CI, 83.4% to 87.2%). Median times to local, regional, and distant recurrence were 79, 78, and 107 months, respectively. Relapse was significantly related to age, Breslow thickness, mitotic rate (MR), ulceration, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and regression; incidence was lower and subgroup differences were less marked for distant metastasis than for regional relapse. The worst prognosis categories were age older than 60 years, Breslow thickness more than 0.75 mm, MR ≥ 1, presence of ulceration, presence of LVI, and regression ≥ 50%. Breslow thickness more than 0.75 mm, MR ≥ 1, presence of ulceration, and LVI (all P = .001) were significantly associated with sentinel node positivity. Age, MR, ulceration, LVI, regression, and sentinel node status were independent predictors of survival and were used to construct a nomogram to predict 12-year overall survival. The nomogram was well calibrated and had good discriminative ability (adjusted Harrell C statistic, 0.88).
Our findings suggest including LVI and regression as new prognostic factors in the melanoma staging system. The nomogram appears useful for risk stratification in clinical management and for recruiting patients to clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Gastrectomy as a primary treatment for patients with metastatic gastric cancer (M1) is highly controversial. Herein, a review of the literature was undertaken with the aim of assessing evidence regarding associated morbidity and mortality, overall survival, palliation and quality of life.
A systematic review of the literature from 1980 to 2013 was undertaken to identify relevant studies. Outcome data were pooled, and combined overall effect sizes were calculated using fixed or random effects models. The search identified 19 non-randomized studies reporting on 2,911 patients.
Overall postoperative mortality and morbidity were 14% and 27% and were higher in Western than in Asian patients. In studies published during the past decade postoperative mortality was less than 5%. The weighted 1- and 2-year overall survival rates were 38% and 17%, and were twice as high in Asian versus Western patients. In the meta-analysis, the 1-year overall survival was significantly higher in patients undergoing gastrectomy versus conservative (odds ratio (OR)=4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.2 to 7.5, p<0.0001) or gastrectomy versus non-resectional treatment (OR=2.6, 95% CI=1.7 to 4.3, p<0.0001). Studies reporting on quality of life and palliation indicate a possible benefit of such palliative gastrectomy.
A possible benefit of gastrectomy compared to non-resectional treatment for stage IV gastric cancer in terms of survival and palliation was evident but has to be cautiously interpreted due to potential sources of bias of retrospective non-randomized studies. Several questions regarding the optimal management of these patients remain unanswered and require a properly-designed randomized trial.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progress in the treatment of cancer over the past decade has been slow. Targeting a mutated gene of an individual patient tumor, tumor-guided agents, and the first draft of the human genome sequence have created an overenthusiasm to achieve personalized medicine. However, we now know that this effort is misleading. Extreme interpatient and intratumor heterogeneity, scarce knowledge in how genome-wide mutational landscape and epigenetic changes affect transcriptional processes, gene expression, signaling transduction networks and cell regulation, and clinical assessment of temporary efficacy of targeted drugs explain the limitations of these currently available agents. Trastuzumab and a few other monoclonal antibodies or small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent an exception to this rule. By blocking ligand-binding receptor in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification and overexpression, trastuzumab added to chemotherapy in HER2-positive patients has been proven to provide significant overall survival benefit in both metastatic and adjuvant settings. Lapatinib, a small-molecule dual inhibitor (TKI) of both HER2 and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) pathways, has an antitumor activity translated into progression-free survival benefit in HER2-positive metastatic patients previously treated with a taxane, an anthracycline, and trastuzumab. Despite these advances, ~25% of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer experience recurrence in the adjuvant setting, while in the metastatic setting, median survival time is 25 months. In this review, we discuss the safety, efficacy, and limitations of the trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) conjugate in the treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. We also highlight Phase III randomized trials, currently underway, using either the T-DM1 conjugate or various combinations of monoclonal antibodies and TKIs. Moreover, in contrast with all these agents developed on the basis of "central dogma" of simplified reductionist transcription and single gene-phenotype linear relationship, we summarize the emerging, amazing era of next-generation, transcriptional circuitry and intracellular signaling network-based drugs guided by the latest advances in genome science and dynamics of network biology.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · OncoTargets and Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Although recent evidence has implicated viruses in the regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tumor progression, little is known regarding viral infections in thyroid malignancies. Thus the aim of this study was to detect sequences of 3 potentially oncogenic viruses - BK virus (BKV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) - in a series of postoperative thyroid gland specimens.
Thirty patients with thyroid nodules who underwent surgery for thyroid disease within a 3-year period were enrolled. Both nodular and adjacent normal thyroid tissue was surgically excised from each patient. Viral gene sequences of BKV (VP1), EBV (LMP1, EBNA2 and EBER1) and HPV were amplified by PCR. The PCR results were confirmed by direct sequencing analysis.
VP1 gene sequences were detected in 60% (18/30) of thyroid cancer or multinodular hyperplasia lesions compared with in 43.3% (13/30) of adjacent normal thyroid tissue specimens. Fifteen of thirty (50%) of thyroid cancer or multinodular hyperplasia samples revealed LMP1 sequences compared with 46.7% (14/30) of corresponding normal thyroid tissues. EBNA2 gene sequences were detected in 90% (27/30) of thyroid cancer or multinodular hyperplasia samples, compared with 90% (27/30) of adjacent normal thyroid tissue specimens. All samples were negative for EBER1 sequences, while HPV DNA was not detected in either nodular or normal thyroid tissue.
This study suggests that BKV and EBV "infection" is an early event, occurring within normal tissue. Our findings do not show a clear role for the viruses examined, instead they suggest an "endemicity" pattern rather than a causal effect.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · The International journal of biological markers
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Frailty is a phenotype characterized by complex and challenging medical problems and higher susceptibility to adverse health outcomes. It can be derived at by a multidimensional process known as comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), which assesses the functional reserves of the elderly. In this study we report for the first time on a prospective evaluation of the association between CGA and postoperative complications after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary disease.
Fifty-seven patients older than 65 years who were to undergo elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for uncomplicated biliary disease were prospectively examined. Preoperative CGA was performed and the patients were categorized as fit or frail. The main outcome of the study was the rate of any postoperative complication within 30 days of surgery.
There were 29 women (50.9 %) and the median (interquartile range) age of the cohort was 73 (8.8) years. Thirty-two patients (56.1 %) were categorized as frail and 25 (43.9 %) as fit. The overall incidence of postoperative complications was 23.7 %, most of which were grade I and II (18.8 %). Frail patients, according to the CGA assessment, experienced a significantly higher incidence of postoperative complications compared to their fit counterparts (84.6 vs. 15.4 %, p = 0.023). Frail patients experienced a significantly higher frequency of prolonged (more than 2 days) postoperative hospital stay compared with their fit counterparts (p = 0.023).
Preoperative CGA may predict postoperative complications and prolonged postoperative hospital stay of elderly patients who undergo elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Larger-scale studies independently assessing this association are warranted.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Only 5% of all cases of intussusceptions occur in adults. Intussusception complicating colonoscopy is an extremely rare event. Herein, we present a case of a 58-year-old man who developed ileocolic intussusception after a colonoscopy during which an adenomatous polyp was discovered in the terminal ileum. Eight hours after colonoscopy, the patient developed diffuse abdominal pain associated with vomiting and bloody diarrhea. A contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan revealed features of mechanical intestinal obstruction and a round soft tissue mass inside the right colon, followed by the wall of the intussusceptum. Emergency laparotomy revealed extended ileocecal intussusception with the polyp incarcerated by the ileocecal valve. A typical right hemicolectomy was performed, and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen revealed an inflammatory fibroid polyp. Ileocolic intussusception due to an ileal polyp may be precipitated by colonoscopy and should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen after colonoscopy.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exclusion of cancer in endemic goiter is often difficult mainly because of the high number of nodules and the as-yet unclear natural history of diagnosed cancer in endemic goiter patients. In a large number of consecutive patients who were to undergo total thyroidectomy for endemic multinodular goiter, we assessed indications for surgery and thyroid cancer outcome.
All patients who were to undergo total thyroidectomy for diffuse multinodular goiter on histological examination between January 1990 and October 2008 were evaluated.
Of the 1,161 patients included in the study, 252 were cases of thyroid cancer (21.7%). Sensitivity of thyroid ultrasound (US) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for cancer detection was 30.3 and 64.1%, respectively. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounted for most of the tumors (96%), with 54.8% of them being papillary microcarcinomas, while bilateral-multicentric cancer occurred in 20.3%. In multivariate analysis, younger age (p = 0.06), sonographic findings (p = 0.03), and presence of histological thyroiditis (p = 0.09) were independently associated with the occurrence of tumors with diameter greater than 2 cm. The percentage of transient and permanent postoperative complications were approximately 25 and below 2%, respectively. After a median follow-up time of 78.5 months, overall recurrence rate was 6.7% and disease-specific mortality was 1.2%.
As US and FNAC did not consistently detect cancer in patients with diffuse multinodular goiter in our endemic area, evidence-based indications for surgery in this group of patients is needed, although radical surgery and favorable tumor histology offer favorable outcomes in commonly diagnosed thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy for endemic multinodular goiter.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · World Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obturator hernia is the protrusion of intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal organs or tissues through the obturator canal. The first case was published by de Ronsil in 1724. Obturator hernia is more common in older malnourished women due to loss of supporting connective tissue and the wider female pelvis. The hernia sac usually contains small bowel, especially ileum. It may follow the anterior or posterior division of the obturator nerve. In most cases, obturator hernia presents with intestinal obstruction of unknown cause. It may present with obturator neuralgia, as a palpable mass or, in cases of bowel necrosis, as ecchymosis of the thigh. A correct diagnosis is made in 20 to 30 per cent of cases. CT scan is considered the gold standard for diagnosis, whereas ultrasonography, contrast studies, herniography and plain films are less specific. Surgery is the only treatment option for obturator hernia. Hesitancy to intervene surgically for chronically ill patients results in high mortality. Transabdominal approach is indicated in cases of complete bowel obstruction or suspected peritonitis. The extra-abdominal approach is used in preoperatively diagnosed cases and in absence of bowel strangulation. The laparoscopic approach is minimally invasive and effectively reduces morbidity. The defect is closed using sutures, tissue flaps, or prosthetic mesh.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · The American surgeon
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) during breastconserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy has been the standard practice for the surgical treatment of breast cancer. To reduce side effects of ALND, sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) has been developed and standardized for early-stage breast cancer. Until recently, micrometastases or metastases in one or more sentinel nodes was considered as indication for ALND. However, recent, large-scale, randomized trials have showed no survival benefit or improved locoregional control of ALND compared with no ALND when micrometastatic or metastatic disease is detected in sentinel lymph nodes (SLN). 1,2 Therefore, ALND can be considered an overtreatment in selected patients. Under these new practice-changing results, new recommendations for multidisciplinary treatment of early breast cancer also require modification. To highlight potential consequences by omitting complete ALND (cALND) after the publication of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 Study, 2 Caudle and colleagues 3 evaluated and shaped the new landscape for the multidisciplinary treatment of selected patients with early breast cancer. Based on the eligibility criteria and results from ACOSOG Z0011 trial, 2 a multidisciplinary team at MD Anderson now counsels the majority of women with clinical T1/T2, N0 tumors with a positive SLN who are undergoing breast-conserving surgery with whole breast irradiation that they may omit cALND with no significant impact on their rate of local-regional recurrence or overall survival. 3 Although this general guidance may benefit most of these women, there are some concerns. The ACOSOG Z0011 trial closed early because of slow accrual with a total of 891 patients, instead of 1,900 initially planned to enroll. At a relatively short median follow-up of 6.3 years, ipsilateral axillary recurrences were noted in 0.5% (n = 2) of patients after ALND versus 0.9% (n = 4) in the SLNDonly arm and longer follow-up is needed to determine whether this difference will be increased. Two different trends are now seen in the United States: a reduction in ALND rate and a dramatic increase in bilateral mastectomy by simultaneous decrease in the rate of BCS for various reasons including family history with positive or even negative BRCA1/2 testing, young age and others. 3,4 The ACOSOG Z0011 trial raises important questions about the origin of metastatic cancer cells. This study suggests that the primary tumor is similar to those of metastatic cells at axilla lymph nodes regarding their sensitivity to multimodal treatment. 2 Perhaps systemic treatment and radiation are able to kill potential residual disease in axilla lymph nodes. However, a recent wholegenome sequencing study in a woman with breast cancer regarding distant metastasis suggests that a different small subpopulation of cells within the primary tumor acquires the capacity of metastasis at distant organs. Emerging biomedical research using modern powerful genome-wide mapping technological advances in both cancer whole-genome sequencing and understanding how genetic and epigenetic changes deregulate gene expression patterns in cancer, provide rational optimism for personalized management of cancer. 5‐12
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been a reliable technique to accurately predict the axilla node status in women with breast cancer with clinically negative lymph nodes. Based on predictive accuracy evidence from large-scale clinical trials, SLNB has become the current standard of care in breast cancer, preventing unnecessary axilla lymph node dissection and its related adverse events in patients who test negative with SLNB. Now a Phase III randomized trial provides evidence that avoiding axilla lymphadenectomy in patients with positive SLNB does not increase locoregional recurrence or mortality. In this article the benefits, risks and selection criteria to safely prevent axilla lymphadenectomy even by positive SLNB are discussed. Moreover, limitations of this practice-changing trial are described with emphasis on caution in patient selection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chondrosarcomas of the spine are rare and difficult to treat. In this paper a case of thoracic chondrosarcoma is presented. Chondrosarcomas of the spine are generally smaller, more difficult to excise and are followed by higher local recurrence compared with chondrosarcomas of the peripheral skeleton. The tumor is radio- and chemoresistant, making the surgical treatment of utmost importance. The most important prognostic factor for local control is wide or marginal tumor resection. Our patient was treated in two stages, with total excision of the tumor, using cryosurgery. Liquid nitrogen was used to freeze the damaged tissue at a cellular level and made the excision more efficient.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Case Reports in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the mean preoperative CRC plasma EGF level (123 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that of the benign group (85 pg/ml; p = 0.015). In the CRC group, the EGF levels were significantly decreased on postoperative days 1 and 3. In the benign group, the EGF levels were significantly lower than the preoperative level on postoperative day 3. The authors concluded that plasma EGF levels are significantly higher in cancer patients treated with laparoscopically assisted surgery. They noted that larger studies with more late samples are needed to
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Surgical Endoscopy