[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. The impact of early valve surgery (EVS) on the outcome of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVIE) is unresolved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association
between EVS, performed within the first 60 days of hospitalization, and outcome of SA PVIE within the International Collaboration
on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study.
Methods. Participants were enrolled between June 2000 and December 2006. Cox proportional hazards modeling that included surgery as
a time-dependent covariate and propensity adjustment for likelihood to receive cardiac surgery was used to evaluate the impact
of EVS and 1-year all-cause mortality on patients with definite left-sided S. aureus PVIE and no history of injection drug use.
Results. EVS was performed in 74 of the 168 (44.3%) patients. One-year mortality was significantly higher among patients with S. aureus PVIE than in patients with non–S. aureus PVIE (48.2% vs 32.9%; P = .003). Staphylococcus aureus PVIE patients who underwent EVS had a significantly lower 1-year mortality rate (33.8% vs 59.1%; P = .001). In multivariate, propensity-adjusted models, EVS was not associated with 1-year mortality (risk ratio, 0.67 [95%
confidence interval, .39–1.15]; P = .15).
Conclusions. In this prospective, multinational cohort of patients with S. aureus PVIE, EVS was not associated with reduced 1-year mortality. The decision to pursue EVS should be individualized for each
patient, based upon infection-specific characteristics rather than solely upon the microbiology of the infection causing PVIE.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of early surgery on mortality in patients with native valve endocarditis (NVE) is unresolved. This study sought to evaluate valve surgery compared with medical therapy for NVE and to identify characteristics of patients who are most likely to benefit from early surgery.
Using a prospective, multinational cohort of patients with definite NVE, the effect of early surgery on in-hospital mortality was assessed by propensity-based matching adjustment for survivor bias and by instrumental variable analysis. Patients were stratified by propensity quintile, paravalvular complications, valve perforation, systemic embolization, stroke, Staphylococcus aureus infection, and congestive heart failure. Of the 1552 patients with NVE, 720 (46%) underwent early surgery and 832 (54%) were treated with medical therapy. Compared with medical therapy, early surgery was associated with a significant reduction in mortality in the overall cohort (12.1% [87/720] versus 20.7% [172/832]) and after propensity-based matching and adjustment for survivor bias (absolute risk reduction [ARR] -5.9%, P<0.001). With a combined instrument, the instrumental-variable-adjusted ARR in mortality associated with early surgery was -11.2% (P<0.001). In subgroup analysis, surgery was found to confer a survival benefit compared with medical therapy among patients with a higher propensity for surgery (ARR -10.9% for quintiles 4 and 5, P=0.002) and those with paravalvular complications (ARR -17.3%, P<0.001), systemic embolization (ARR -12.9%, P=0.002), S aureus NVE (ARR -20.1%, P<0.001), and stroke (ARR -13%, P=0.02) but not those with valve perforation or congestive heart failure.
Early surgery for NVE is associated with an in-hospital mortality benefit compared with medical therapy alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the influence of acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA) on clinical outcomes in Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (SA-IE).
The International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study database was used in this observational study. Multivariable analysis of the SA-IE cohort compared outcomes in patients with and without ASA use, adjusting for other predictive variables, including: age, diabetes, hemodialysis, cancer, pacemaker, intracardiac defibrillator and methicillin resistance.
Data were analysed from 670 patients, 132 of whom were taking ASA at the time of SA-IE diagnosis. On multivariable analysis, ASA usage was associated with a significantly decreased overall rate of acute valve replacement surgery (OR 0.58 [95% CI 0.35-0.97]; p<0.04), particularly where valvular regurgitation, congestive heart failure or periannular abscess was the indication for such surgery (OR 0.46 [0.25-0.86]; p<0.02). There was no reduction in the overall rates of clinically apparent embolism with prior ASA usage, and no increase in hemorrhagic strokes in ASA-treated patients.
In this multinational prospective observational cohort, recent ASA usage was associated with a reduced occurrence of acute valve replacement surgery in SA-IE patients. Future investigations should focus on ASA's prophylactic and therapeutic use in high-risk and newly diagnosed patients with SA bacteremia and SA-IE, respectively.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · The Journal of infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Despite growing evidence supporting the use of surgery for native valve endocarditis (NVE), rates of early surgery remain erratic and controversial. Methods: A prospective, multicenter cohort of 1612 patients with definite NVE was used to identify variables associated with early surgery. Propensity scores, based on the likelihood of undergoing surgery, were used to match patients treated with early surgery and those treated medically. Results: In the unadjusted analysis, early surgery was associated with reduced mortality during the initial hospitalization (21% vs. 13%, p<0.0001). After propensity score based matching, regression analysis of the matched cohorts (n=854) revealed that surgery was independently associated with decreased mortality (OR 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.67). Conclusions: Early surgery is associated with a significant survival benefit for patients with NVE.