Nabil H Al-Humadi

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States

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Publications (8)21.91 Total impact

  • Shuiying Hu · Hongwen Zhao · Nabil H Al-Humadi · Xuejun J Yin · Joseph K H Ma
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that silica induces apoptosis through mechanisms that also regulate the inflammatory responses of lung cells to silica exposure. Although implicated in cell culture studies, the major in vivo pathway through which silica induces apoptosis has not been characterized. The present study is to study the role of mitochondria in silica-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in vivo. Rats were intratracheally instilled with saline or silica (20 mg/kg) and sacrificed at 3 days post-exposure unless otherwise specified. Alveolar macrophages (AM) were harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage and measured for apoptosis and secretion of inflammatory mediators in the presence or absence of appropriate inhibitors. Concurrent studies were carried out to determine the presence of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) via confocal microscopy, mitochondrial trans-membrane potential by flow cytometry, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase activities in AM by Western blot analysis. Silica was shown to induce elevated levels of intracellular ROS, resulting in a marked decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH) and cysteine and a sustained presence of apoptotic AM in silica-exposed rats up to two weeks post-exposure. The apoptotic AM were characterized by decreased mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, increased mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activated caspase 9 (but not caspase 8) and caspase 3 activities, and PARP degradation, comparing to cells from the saline control. Silica induced AM production of IL-1 and TNF-alpha, which may be inhibited by ex vivo treatment of cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or microtubule modifiers such as tetrandrine and taxol. NAC was shown to prevent intracellular GSH depletion and silica-induced production of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha but not apoptosis in AM from silica-exposed rats. These results show that silica-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial pathway but not through cellular production of inflammatory cytokines, ROS generation, however, induces both apoptosis and cellular secretion of inflammatory mediators.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure on innate, cellular and humoral pulmonary immunity was studied using high-dose, acute-exposure rat, mouse, and cell culture models. DEP consists of a complex mixture of petrochemical-derived organics adsorbed onto elemental carbon particles. DEP is a major component of particulate urban air pollution and a health concern in both urban and occupational environments. The alveolar macrophage is considered a key cellular component in pulmonary innate immunity. DEP and DEP organic extracts have been found to suppress alveolar macrophage function as demonstrated by reduced production of cytokines (interleukin-1 [IL-1], tumor necrosis factor- alpha [TNF- alpha]) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to a variety of agents, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon- gamma (IFN- gamma), and bacteria. Fractionation of DEP organic extract suggests that this activity was predominately in polyaromatic-containing and more polar (resin) fractions. Organic-stripped DEP did not alter these innate pulmonary immune responses. DEP also depressed pulmonary clearance of Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). The contribution of the organic component of DEP is less well defined with respect to acquired and humoral immunity. Indeed, both DEP and carbon black enhanced humoral immune responses (specific immunoglobulin [Ig] E and IgG) in an ovalbumin-sensitized rat model. It is concluded that both the particulate and adsorbed organics may contribute to DEP-mediated immune alterations.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A
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    ABSTRACT: Dose-dependent specific antibody production, antigen-dependent pulmonary inflammation, and thiol changes in the lung and associated lymph nodes were examined in a Brown Norway rat model of pulmonary sensitization. Cysteine (CYSH), glutathione (GSH), and markers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured following ovalbumin (OVA) inhalation challenge. Alveolar macrophages (AM) and pulmonary-associated lymph node cells (LNC) were isolated and intracellular CYSH and GSH assessed. OVA-specific IgE and IgG antibodies were quantified from sera. A dose-dependent biphasic response was noted with respect to OVA-specific IgE. OVA-specific IgG concentrations were maximal at 68 mg (OVA)/m3. OVA challenge to sensitized rats induced increases in BALF albumin, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, CYSH and GSH that were independent of serum antibody concentrations. AM thiols were modestly elevated at low OVA challenge doses, but sharply reduced at the higher OVA challenge doses. In contrast, both thiols were dose dependently elevated in BALE CYSH, but not GSH, was elevated in LNC of OVA challenged rats. In summary, antigen exposure caused a dose-dependent alteration of inflammatory, thiol and immune parameters in OVA sensitized and challenged rats. Changes in thiol levels did not correlate with antibody responses. While the results of the present study do not support a functional role for thiols in the immune response, it is important to note the dose-dependent dramatic alteration seen in thiols following sensitization and challenge.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Toxicology and Industrial Health
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    ABSTRACT: Brown Norway rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation of saline, carbon black (CB), or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) (5 mg/kg) on day 1, followed by exposure to ovalbumin (OVA, 90 mg/m(3)) or saline for 30 minutes on days 1, 8, 15, and 29. Animals were sacrificed on day 30. The DEP, CB, or OVA exposure alone did not result in abnormal levels of inflammatory cells, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), or total protein in the lavage fluid. In combined OVA-DEP or OVA-CB exposure, however, these markers were significantly increased. The adjuvant effect of CB and DEP on OVA sensitization was evidenced by the marked increases in serum OVA-specific IgG (5.6-fold) and IgE (3.5-4 fold) levels, and the increase in interleukin-4 (IL-4) mRNA levels in lung tissue. The OVA exposure markedly reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in both cell types. In combined DEP-OVA exposure, the level of GSH in lymphocytes was further decreased, indicating a possible interactive effect between DEP and OVA exposures. These results show that both DEP and CB augmented OVA-induced allergic sensitization, and that particle composition of DEP may not be a critical factor for the adjuvant effect. OVA exposure causes significant depletion of intracellular GSH in lymphocytes, which may play a key role in OVA-mediated immune responses.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2002 · Experimental Lung Research
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on thiol regulation in alveolar macrophages (AM) and lymphocytes. We obtained AM and lymph node (thymic and tracheal) cells (LNC) (at different time points) from rats exposed intratracheally to DEP (5 mg/kg) or saline, and measured inflammatory markers, thiol levels, and glutathione reductase (GSH-R) activity. DEP exposure produced significant increases in neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and albumin content in the lavage fluid. AM from DEP-exposed rats showed a time-dependent increase in intracellular cysteine (CYSH) and GSH. In LNC the intracellular GSH reached peak level by 24 hr, declining toward control levels by 72 hr after exposure. LNC-CYSH and AM-CYSH and GSH were increased at both 24 and 72 hr. Both Sprague-Dawley and Brown Norway rats showed similar trends of responses to DEP exposure as per measurement of the inflammatory markers and thiol changes. AM and, to a lesser degree, LNC were both active in cystine uptake. The DEP exposure stimulated GSH-R activity and increased the conversion of cystine to CYSH in both cell types. The intracellular level of GSH in DEP-exposed AM was moderately increased compared with the saline control, and was further augmented when cells were incubated with cystine. In contrast, the intracellular level of GSH in DEP-exposed LNC was significantly reduced despite the increased CYSH level and GSH-R activity when these cells were cultured for 16 hr. DEP absorbed 23-31% of CYSH, cystine, and GSH, and only 8% of glutathione disulfide when incubated in cell free media. These results indicate that DEP exposure caused lung inflammation and affected thiol levels in both AM and LNC.
    Full-text · Article · May 2002 · Environmental Health Perspectives
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    ABSTRACT: A major route of exposure to allergens is through the respiratory tract. Comparatively few animal studies have used aerosolized high-molecular-weight allergens for sensitization, and in these studies, proper characterization of the aeroallergen exposure was usually missing. The purpose of this study was to profile the exposure-response relationship in Brown Norway rats (BNR) to well-characterized ovalbumin (OVA) aerosols. Rats were exposed 30 min/wk x 6 wk to respirable OVA aerosols from <1 mg/m(3) to 64 mg/m(3) air. Ovalbumin-specific circulating immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG, and IgA were measured throughout the study period. Rats were sacrificed 1 day after the last exposure. Pulmonary tissue was processed for histopathological and histochemical analysis. Tracheas were isolated, perfused, and assessed for in vitro responsiveness to methacholine. Serum concentrations of OVA-specific antibodies increased with both exposure concentration and number of exposures. The number of BNR with measurable titers also increased with both dose and time. Pulmonary inflammatory changes were noted only in BNR exposed to higher OVA concentrations (15 and 64 mg/m(3) air). Increased tracheal reactivity to methacholine was not found in any of the sensitized BNR. In summary, sustained aeroallergen concentration-dependent changes in specific antibody responses and pulmonary inflammation have been demonstrated.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Inhalation Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that airway irritation, by acting as an adjuvant, as well as producing damage, may be an important factor related to asthma. The present study examined the window of time following acute upper and lower airway irritant exposure to determine the period of increased risk of immunological sensitization. Brown Norway rats were exposed to 87 ppm NO2 or 1000 ppm NH3 for 1 hr. A 30-min ovalbumin (OVA) exposure of 18.14 microg/liter air was given at various times based upon the time course of irritant associated inflammatory response (either immediately prior to or 1 or 7 days after the irritant exposure). OVA-only, NO2-only or NH3-only controls, and saline controls were also studied. Weekly booster exposures of OVA (or saline) were given. Circulating OVA-specific IgE, IgA, and IgG levels were quantified periodically during the 6 weeks of the study. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was also performed to examine the inflammatory response to allergic and irritant challenge. Significant increases in OVA-specific IgE, IgG, and IgA antibody titers were seen in rats given the sensitizing OVA exposure within 1 day of the NO2, but not NH3 exposures. Enhancement of cellular infiltrate in BAL was noted in groups given the sensitizing OVA exposure within 1 day of the NO2 or NH3. It is concluded that the inflammatory and immunological response to antigen exposure can be modified by the site of respiratory tract irritation and the relative times of irritant and antigen exposure.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1997 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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