Publications (4)48.34 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite published catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention guidelines, inappropriate catheter use is common. We surveyed housestaff about their knowledge of catheter-associated urinary tract infections at a teaching hospital and found most are aware of prevention guidelines; however, their application to clinical scenarios and catheter practices fall short of national goals. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;00(0):1–3
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No published systematic reviews have assessed the natural history of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Time to clearance of colonization has important implications for patient care and infection control policy. We performed parallel searches in OVID Medline for studies that reported the time to documented clearance of MRSA and VRE colonization in the absence of treatment, published between January 1990 and July 2012. For MRSA, we screened 982 articles, identified 16 eligible studies (13 observational studies and 3 randomized controlled trials), for a total of 1,804 non-duplicated subjects. For VRE, we screened 284 articles, identified 13 eligible studies (12 observational studies and 1 randomized controlled trial), for a total of 1,936 non-duplicated subjects. Studies reported varying definitions of clearance of colonization; no study reported time of initial colonization. Studies varied in the frequency of sampling, assays used for sampling, and follow-up period. The median duration of total follow-up was 38 weeks for MRSA and 25 weeks for VRE. Based on pooled analyses, the model-estimated median time to clearance was 88 weeks after documented colonization for MRSA-colonized patients and 26 weeks for VRE-colonized patients. In a secondary analysis, clearance rates for MRSA and VRE were compared by restricting the duration of follow-up for the MRSA studies to the maximum observed time point for VRE studies (43 weeks). With this restriction, the model-fitted median time to documented clearance for MRSA would occur at 41 weeks after documented colonization, demonstrating the sensitivity of the pooled estimate to length of study follow-up. Few available studies report the natural history of MRSA and VRE colonization. Lack of a consistent definition of clearance, uncertainty regarding the time of initial colonization, variation in frequency of sampling for persistent colonization, assays employed and variation in duration of follow-up are limitations of the existing published literature. The heterogeneity of study characteristics limits interpretation of pooled estimates of time to clearance, however, studies included in this review suggest an increase in documented clearance over time, a result which is sensitive to duration of follow-up.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To systematically assess the evidence for an association between sexual abuse and a lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. We performed a comprehensive search (from January 1980-December 2008, all age groups, any language, any population) of 9 databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Contents, PsycINFO, ACP Journal Club, CCTR, CDSR, and DARE. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords was used to define the concept areas of sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders and was limited to epidemiological studies. Six independent reviewers extracted descriptive, quality, and outcome data from eligible longitudinal studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled across studies by using the random-effects model. The I(2) statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. The search yielded 37 eligible studies, 17 case-control and 20 cohort, with 3,162,318 participants. There was a statistically significant association between sexual abuse and a lifetime diagnosis of anxiety disorder (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 2.43-3.94), depression (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 2.14-3.30), eating disorders (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 2.04-3.63), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.59-3.43), sleep disorders (OR, 16.17; 95% CI, 2.06-126.76), and suicide attempts (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.98-5.76). Associations persisted regardless of the victim's sex or the age at which abuse occurred. There was no statistically significant association between sexual abuse and a diagnosis of schizophrenia or somatoform disorders. No longitudinal studies that assessed bipolar disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder were found. Associations between sexual abuse and depression, eating disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder were strengthened by a history of rape. A history of sexual abuse is associated with an increased risk of a lifetime diagnosis of multiple psychiatric disorders.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many patients presenting for general medical care have a history of sexual abuse. The literature suggests an association between a history of sexual abuse and somatic sequelae. To systematically assess the association between sexual abuse and a lifetime diagnosis of somatic disorders. Data Sources and Extraction A systematic literature search of electronic databases from January 1980 to December 2008. Pairs of reviewers extracted descriptive, quality, and outcome data from included studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled across studies by using the random-effects model. The I(2) statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. Eligible studies were longitudinal (case-control and cohort) and reported somatic outcomes in persons with and without history of sexual abuse. The search identified 23 eligible studies describing 4640 subjects. There was a significant association between a history of sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.36-4.31; I(2) = 82%; 5 studies), nonspecific chronic pain (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.54-3.15; 1 study), psychogenic seizures (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.12-4.69, I(2) = 0%; 3 studies), and chronic pelvic pain (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.73-4.30, I(2) = 40%; 10 studies). There was no statistically significant association between sexual abuse and a lifetime diagnosis of fibromyalgia (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.85-3.07, I(2) = 0%; 4 studies), obesity (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.88-2.46; I(2) = 71%; 2 studies), or headache (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.96-2.31; 1 study). We found no studies that assessed syncope. When analysis was restricted to studies in which sexual abuse was defined as rape, significant associations were observed between rape and a lifetime diagnosis of fibromyalgia (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.51-7.46), chronic pelvic pain (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.02-10.53), and functional gastrointestinal disorders (OR, 4.01; 95% CI, 1.88-8.57). Evidence suggests a history of sexual abuse is associated with lifetime diagnosis of multiple somatic disorders.