[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In both humans and mice, fetal exposure to radiation fails to induce a persistent increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Such a low-level response to radiation exposure is counterintuitive in view of the generally accepted belief that a fetus is sensitive to radiation. To determine if this is a general phenomenon, both mammary epithelial cells and spleen cells were studied in rats. Fetuses of 17.5 days postcoitus were irradiated with 2 Gy of gamma rays, and mammary tissues were removed 6-45 weeks later. Subsequently, short-term cultures were established to detect translocations using the two-color FISH method. The results showed that translocation frequencies were not only elevated in rats irradiated as fetuses, but were also almost as high as those in rats that were irradiated as adults (12 weeks old, pregnant mothers or young virgins) and examined 6-45 weeks later. There was no evidence of higher sensitivity in fetal cells with respect to the induction of translocations. In contrast, translocation frequencies in spleen cells were not elevated in adult rats irradiated as fetuses but were increased after irradiation of adults as previously seen in mouse spleen cells and human T lymphocytes. In the case of irradiation of adult rats, the induced translocation frequencies were similar between spleen cells and mammary epithelial cells. If we take translocation frequency as a surrogate marker of potential carcinogenic effect of radiation, the current results suggest that fetal irradiation can induce persistent potential carcinogenic damage in mammary stem/progenitor cells but this does not contribute to the increased risk of cancer since it has been reported that irradiation of fetal rats of the SD strain does not increase the risk of mammary cancers. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that mouse fetuses or neonates exposed to 2 Gy of X rays showed an unexpectedly low incidence of chromosome damage in lymphocytes, bone marrow, and spleen cells when the mice were subsequently examined at 20 weeks of age. However, cells bearing translocations were occasionally observed that, on the basis of 2-color whole chromosome painting appeared to be clonal descendants. Unfortunately, this approach typically did not permit unequivocal confirmation of their clonality. To overcome this problem, multi-color FISH (mFISH) was employed, which assigns all 21 individual chromosome types of the mouse a unique color. After mFISH analyses of the same cell samples studied previously, it was confirmed that spleen cells of 20-week-old mice irradiated either as 15.5-day fetuses or as 3- to 4-day-old neonates showed translocation frequencies close to zero. Translocations previously suspected as being clonal in nature were confirmed as such by mFISH, which also revealed the presence of an additional clone not previously detected or suspected. Since no evidence of clonality was observed in the irradiated mother, we concluded that in both fetuses and neonates, there exists a small fraction of stem cells that are distinct from the bulk of the stem cell compartment in terms of their ability to acquire and transmit radiation-induced chromosome damage through clonal expansion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected existing data from 16 laboratories in North America, Europe, and Asia on TFs measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome painting among 1933 individuals. In Poisson regression models, age, ranging from newborns (cord blood) to 85 years, was strongly associated with TF and this relationship showed significant upward curvature at older ages versus a linear relationship (p<0.001). Ever smokers had significantly higher TFs than non-smokers (rate ratio (RR)=1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.30) and smoking modified the effect of age on TFs with a steeper age-related increase among ever smokers compared to non-smokers (p<0.001). TFs did not differ by gender. Interpreting an independent effect of race was difficult owing to laboratory variation. Our study is three times larger than any pooled effort to date, confirming a suspected curvilinear relationship of TF with age. The significant effect of cigarette smoking has not been observed with previous pooled studies of TF in humans. Our data provide stable estimates of background TF by age, gender, race, and smoking status and suggest an acceleration of chromosome damage above age 60 and among those with a history of smoking cigarettes.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytogenetic data on cultured lymphocytes of the in utero exposed A-bomb survivors in the RERF Adult Health Study cohort have been analyzed using the G-banding technique to determine the frequency of aneuploid cells. The data consist of blood samples collected between 1985 and 1987 from 264 Hiroshima individuals for whom DS86 maternal uterine dose estimates are available: 124 proximally exposed (74 males and 50 females) with an estimated dose of 0.005 Sv or more, and 140 distally exposed (76 males and 64 females) with a dose estimate of 0 Sv, assuming the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 10. A main feature of aneuploidy was that aneuploid frequency in autosomes depended generally on chromosome length; aneuploidies were significantly more frequent in shorter chromosomes than in longer chromosomes. The frequency of aneuploidies also depended on type, with chromosome loss approximately five times more frequent than chromosome gain. However, chromosome 21, as well as the sex chromosomes, were notable in that aneuploidy was much more frequent for these chromosomes than would be predicted from a simple relationship with length. X chromosome aneuploidies were significantly more frequent in females than in males. There was no dependence of aneuploid frequencies on dose when measured 40 years after the exposure.
No preview · Article · Mar 1994 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An overview is given of the dose-response relationship for stable chromosome aberrations (i.e., translocations and inversions) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima. Special emphasis is placed on (i) the overdispersion of survivor cases with either unexpectedly high or low aberration frequencies relative to the estimated DS86 kerma values assigned to individual survivors, termed "cytogenetic outliers", and (ii) the correlation of chromosome aberration frequencies with other biological endpoints, such as acute radiation symptoms (severe epilation). A new molecular biological technique, known as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with composite, whole-chromosome probes to paint differentially the target chromosomes, has facilitated rapid, efficient, and extensive scoring of translocation-type chromosome aberrations in which the target chromosomes are involved. Using this methodology, the observed findings on translocation frequencies in A-bomb survivors have shown that the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations, which have persisted for years without change in frequency in irradiated persons, is indeed useful as an indicator for biological dosimetry.
No preview · Article · Apr 1992 · Journal of Radiation Research