[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is scant literature about cirrhosis and its associated complications in a non-hospitalized population.
To study the epidemiology of cirrhosis-associated Emergency Department visits in the US.
Estimates were calculated in patients’ ≥18 years using the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample.
The number of visits associated with an International Classification of Diseases-9 diagnosis code of cirrhosis increased non-significantly from 23.81/10,000 population (2006) to 23.9/10,000 population (2011; P = 0.05). A majority of these patients (75.30%) underwent hospital admission, the greatest risk factor for this was the presence of ≥3 comorbidities (adjusted odds ratio 30.8; 95% Confidence Interval 30.4–31.2). Infection was the most frequent concurrent complicating diagnosis associated with cirrhosis (20.1%). There was a decreased incidence in most of the complicating conditions except for hepatorenal syndrome and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
Our results indicate a stable trend for cirrhosis-associated Emergency Department visits from 2006 to 2011. Further studies are required to investigate the increased incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal renal syndrome in the cirrhotic population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solid pseudopapillary tumors are rare pancreatic tumors. Accurate preoperative diagnosis helps in planning of the surgery.
This study was to evaluate accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and immunohistochemistry in diagnosing solid pseudopapillary tumors.
A retrospective review was performed by reviewing medical records to identify patients treated for solid pseudopapillary tumors over a 5-year period. Patients who were noted to have pancreatic lesions by computer tomography abdomen underwent endoscopic ultrasound. Fine needle aspiration was obtained from each of these lesions and subjected to immunohistochemistry.
Five patients were identified. Endoscopic ultrasound was able to identify the pancreatic lesions in all five patients noted in computer tomography abdomen. Solid pseudopapillary tumors were diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. All five patients underwent surgery and the resected lesions confirmed solid pseudopapillary tumors in 80% patients.
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration has a higher degree of accuracy in diagnosing solid pseudopapillary tumors.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · North American Journal of Medical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: The utility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for the diagnosis of pelvic masses has been suggested but limited data are available in the literature regarding its diagnostic accuracy. GOALS:: To report our institutional experience with EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of a variety of pelvic diseases. METHODS:: Patients who were referred for the evaluation of pelvic lesions using lower EUS-FNA were included in this retrospective analysis if they had available surgical pathology (obtained after EUS) which was considered the gold standard against which the EUS-FNA findings would have been compared. The diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA for pelvic masses was analyzed and any early or late complications after the procedure were reported. A pelvic mass was defined in the study as any mass seen with an imaging modality in the pelvic area including those involving the colonic wall. RESULTS:: Twenty patients had EUS-FNA followed by surgery for whom FNA cytology and surgical pathology findings were available. EUS-FNA reached the correct diagnosis in 19 out of 20 patients, whereas for the missing 1 malignant lymph node wherein FNA revealed benign cytology, surgical specimen confirmed metastatic colon cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of EUS-FNA were 90% and 100%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 90%, respectively. No early or late complications were encountered with this procedure for the sampling of cystic and noncystic masses. CONCLUSIONS:: EUS-FNA has excellent diagnostic accuracy for pelvic masses. It represents a safe procedure with excellent yield and thus may be used as a first line modality for the evaluation and diagnosis of pelvic masses within its reach.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of clinical gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasonography guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a front line test used for the diagnosis of solid as well as cystic lesions of the pancreas. This procedure is fairly well tolerated and associated with minimal complications. Local complications such as perforation and pancreatitis have been reported with EUS-FNA, albeit rarely. Although pancreatic duct injury can occur during EUS-FNA, symptomatic pancreatic duct leak as a complication of this procedure has never been reported.
We present a 67-year-old patient who developed symptomatic ascites after EUS-FNA of a pancreatic neck lesion that required several paracenteses. Analysis of the ascitic fluid revealed that the fluid amylase and lipase levels were very high consistent with pancreatic ascites. An endoscopic retrograde pancreatography was subsequently performed that documented the presence of a pancreatic duct leak in the neck. The pancreatic duct leak and the ascites resolved after placing a pancreatic duct stent.
A clinically significant pancreatic leak can occur as a rare complication of EUS-FNA that can be effectively managed by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography and placement of a transpapillary pancreatic duct stent.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · JOP: Journal of the pancreas
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) imaging with histopathology in the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions.
Thirty-seven patients (21 female; mean age: 55 y) underwent endoscopic submucosal resection (ESMR) of upper gastro intestinal subepithelial lesions at a tertiary care facility. All patients underwent EUS before ESMR of the lesion. Information regarding location, size, echogenecity, layer of origin, presumptive diagnosis based on EUS imaging, and histopathology diagnosis after ESMR of the subepithelial lesion was recorded.
Twenty-seven subepithelial lesions were resected from the stomach, 5 from the esophagus, and 5 from the duodenum. The mean size of the lesions was 9 mm (range, 6-18 mm). Thirty-six lesions originated from the submucosa, and 1 from the muscularis propria. Using histopathology as the gold standard, the overall diagnostic accuracy of EUS imaging was 49% (18 out of 37). The accuracy of EUS imaging for the diagnosis of esophageal, gastric, and duodenal subepithelial lesions was 20%, 56%, and 40%, respectively. One patient developed a microperforation, and 1 developed bleeding during the ESMR procedure. No complications were reported with the EUS procedure.
The diagnostic accuracy of EUS imaging is inferior to histopathology in the diagnosis of small upper gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions. Endoluminal resection is a relatively safe and noninvasive modality that not only provides tissue sample for accurate diagnostic interpretation, but also aids in the complete removal of small subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of clinical gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schwannoma is the most common neurogenic tumor that is derived from the peripheral nerve sheath. There are no specific serologic markers or characteristic imaging abnormalities associated with schwannoma. Tissue diagnosis and immunohistochemistry are required to diagnose this lesion. We describe a 65-year-old male with a finding of three mass lesions in the superior and middle mediastinum on computed tomography of the chest. The largest lesion measured 4.6 × 5 cm. The patient subsequently underwent endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the lesion and cytology was consistent with spindle cell neoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining of the cytologic specimen was positive for S-100 and negative for pan-cytokeratin, CD34, CD117, calcitonin, smooth muscle actin and desmin. These findings were consistent with schwannoma. This is the second reported case of a mediastinal schwannoma diagnosed by EUS-FNA.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Case Reports in Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most endosonographers use an EUS needle with an internal stylet during EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA). Reinserting the stylet into the needle after every pass is tedious and time-consuming, and there are no data to suggest that it improves the quality of the cytology specimen.
To compare the samples obtained by EUS-FNA with and without a stylet for (1) the degree of cellularity, adequacy, contamination, and amount of blood and (2) the diagnostic yield of malignancy.
Prospective,single-blind, randomized, controlled trial.
Two tertiary care referral centers.
Patients referred for EUS-FNA of solid lesions.
Patients underwent EUS-FNA of the solid lesions, and 2 passes each were made with a stylet and without a stylet in the needle. The order of the passes was randomized, and the cytopathologists reviewing the slides were blinded to the stylet status of passes.
Degree of cellularity, adequacy, contamination, amount of blood, and the diagnostic yield of malignancy in the specimens.
A total of 101 patients with 118 lesions were included in final analysis; 236 FNA passes were made, each with and without a stylet. No significant differences were seen in the cellularity (P = .98), adequacy of the specimen (P = .26), contamination (P = .92), or significant amount of blood (P = .61) between specimens obtained with and without a stylet. The diagnostic yield of malignancy was 55 of 236 specimens (23%) in the with-stylet group compared with 66 of 236 specimens (28%) in the without-stylet group (P = .29).
Endosonographers were not blinded to the stylet status of the passes.
Using a stylet during EUS-FNA does not confer any significant advantage with regard to the quality of the specimen obtained or the diagnostic yield of malignancy. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT 01213290).
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Gastrointestinal endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Pancreatic cancer is diagnosed in some patients by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) even in the absence of an obvious mass lesion on transabdominal imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of PBM on EUS-FNA in patients with no obvious mass on transabdominal imaging and identify possible predictors of PBM in this cohort of patients.
Three hundred and twenty-six patients (219 female; mean age: 57) with no obvious neoplastic lesion on trans-abdominal imaging underwent EUS. Demographic data, indication of EUS, history of weight loss, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, cholecystectomy status, CT and USG findings, and liver function tests (LFTs) were reviewed.
Thirty patients (9%) were diagnosed with a PBM by EUS-FNA (27 pancreatic adenocarcinoma, three ampullary adenocarcinoma). The mean age of patients diagnosed with PBM was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than controls. The mean size of the tumor was 2.8 cm (range: 0.9-7 cm). Male gender, presence of jaundice, abnormal LFTs, weight loss, and nonspecific trans-abdominal imaging results such as dilated common bile duct (CBD), and abnormal appearing pancreas predicted the presence (P < 0.05) of PBM, whereas patients with previous cholecystectomy and abdominal pain were less likely to have this diagnosis.
Normal trans-abdominal imaging does not completely exclude the presence of PBM. Nonspecific pancreatic abnormalities and CBD dilation on trans-abdominal imaging, with jaundice, abnormal LFTs, weight loss, and lack of abdominal pain are predictors of PBM.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fecal incontinence (FI) is a common clinical condition with a negative impact on the quality of life. Commonly performed tests to evaluate FI include anorectal manometry (ARM) and endoanal ultrasonography (EAU). Objective of our study was to compare the results of these 2 tests in a cohort of patients with FI.
Retrospective study of 27 patients (20 women) referred to the gastrointestinal motility clinic for FI. EAU and ARM were performed in all patients. Demographic data and information regarding etiology of FI was also recorded.
Mean age of the patients was 56 years (range 26-87 years). Etiology of FI was obstetric trauma in 4, pelvic surgery in 9, pelvic trauma in 3, pelvic radiation in 1, and idiopathic in 8. Based on the ARM data, 14 of 27 had a weak external sphincter squeeze pressure and 3 had impaired rectal sensation, whereas with the EAU there was thinning of the external anal sphincter in 3 and complete disruption in 1, and abnormalities of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) in 7 of 27 with thinning, and defects. Overall, only 2 of 27 had normal findings by combined ARM and EAU.
Although the yield of finding major sphincter defects was low, only a small percentage of patients had a normal ARM or EAU. When there are degrees of external anal sphincter thinning or partial or complete disruption of the sphincters, a good correlation with ARM is achieved. EAU and ARM are complimentary investigations for the thorough assessment of the anal sphincter apparatus.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · The American Journal of the Medical Sciences