Maureen B. Maude

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (46)141.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the level of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) is lower in the rod outer segment (ROS) membranes of dogs and mice with inherited retinal degeneration than in ROS from appropriate controls. In the present study, we analyzed the ROS fatty composition of several lines of transgenic rats with P23H and S334ter rhodopsin mutations. Lines were chosen that have different rates of retinal degeneration. At 21-22 days of age, animals were perfused and eyes fixed and sectioned for morphologic examination. Others were killed and retinas isolated for preparation of ROS by sucrose step-gradient centrifugation. Fatty acid composition of ROS phospholipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Membrane purity was assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Retinas of the slow degenerating lines were indistinguishable from controls, whereas there was a 15-20% and 50-60% loss of photoreceptor cell nuclei in intermediate and fast degenerating lines, respectively. Except for the slow P23H line, all mutant lines had lower levels of 22:6n-3 and total n-3 fatty acids in ROS phospholipids, compared to wild-type controls, and the level of 22:6n-3 was lowest in those lines with the fastest rate of degeneration. The relative levels of the other fatty acid families (saturated, monoenoic, and n-6) increased proportionately. The n-6/n-3 ratio increased in the more rapidly degenerating lines, but the phospholipid/protein ratios did not change. The low levels of 22:6n-3 in the ROS membranes were not compensated for by an increase in 22:5n-6, which always occurs in the retina of animals where 22:6n-3 levels are reduced by dietary manipulation. Rats that express mutant rhodopsins have lower levels of 22:6n-3 in their ROS phospholipids than wild-type animals. We propose that photoreceptor-specific mutations provoke a metabolic stress in rod photoreceptor cells that generates an oxidant stress in these cells. The retina responds to this stress by reducing the level of substrate for lipid peroxidation (22:6n-3).
    No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Molecular vision
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    R E Anderson · M B Maude · D Bok
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    ABSTRACT: Humans with retinitis pigmentosa and dogs with progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd) have lower than normal blood levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major fatty acid found in retinal rod outer segments (ROS). In addition, prcd-affected dogs have lower levels of DHA in their ROS than control animals. The present study was designed to determine whether mice that are heterozygous for the rds mutation and transgenic mice heterozygous for a specific rds/peripherin mutation (P216L) have lower DHA levels in their ROS and other tissues than do control mice. Wild-type (rds(+/+)) mice, mice with the rds(-/-) (null) and rds(+/-) mutations, and mice with the P216L rds/peripherin mutation on the rds(+/-) background were maintained in the vivarium under identical husbandry conditions, and tissues were removed from each group for analysis at approximately 2 months of age. Fatty acid compositions of total lipids from plasma, red blood cells, liver, and ROS were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. ROS purity from each group was determined by SDS-PAGE with silver staining. The morphologic status of retinas representing each genotype was analyzed by light and electron microscopy. There was no difference between rds(+/-), P216L on rds(+/-), and rds(+/+) (control) animals in the fatty acid composition of plasma, expressed as relative mole percent or as nanomoles fatty acid per milliliter of plasma. Small but statistically significant differences were found in 18:0 and C-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids of red blood cells. In the liver, the control animals had higher levels of 20:4n-6. In contrast, the ROS of control animals had levels of DHA that were 1.4 times that of ROS from either rds(+/-) or P216L on rds(+/-) mice of the same age. The reduction in DHA was not accompanied by an increase in 22:5n-6, which always occurs in neural tissues of animals deprived of n-3 fatty acids. SDS-PAGE of the three ROS membrane preparations showed that they were of identical purity. Mice heterozygous for the spontaneous rds/peripherin mutation or mice carrying the P216L mutation on this heterozygous background have a statistically significant reduction of DHA in their ROS membranes. The authors propose that reduction in DHA is an adaptive response to metabolic stress caused by the mutation.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2001 · Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies in humans with a variety of inherited retinal degenerations have shown that they have reduced blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) (ref. 1–10), the major fatty acid in photoreceptor rod outer segment (ROS) membranes11. The greatest differences are seen in people with x-linked retinitis pigmentosa7 and Usher’s syndrome type II (ref 10). Since the gene defect in these two types of inherited retinal degeneration is different, it is not likely that the reduction in blood levels of DHA is due directly to the mutation. Until recently, none of the mutations identified in retinitis pigmentosa were found in genes encoding proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism. However, Zhang et al12 found that two forms of macular degeneration (Stargardt-like macular dystrophy and autosomal dominant macular dystrophy) map to a 0.6 cM interval on chromosome 6ql4 that contains a new retinal photoreceptor-specific gene, ELOVL4, which has sequence homology to a yeast protein that functions in the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids (also see chapter in this book).
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2001
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    C L Jensen · M Maude · R E Anderson · W C Heird
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation of breast-feeding mothers increases the DHA contents of breast milk and infant plasma phospholipids (PPs), breast-feeding women were randomly assigned to 3 DHA-supplementation groups (170-260 mg/d) or a control group. Group 1 (n = 6) consumed an algae-produced high-DHA triacylglycerol; group 2 (n = 6) consumed high-DHA eggs; group 3 (n = 6) consumed a high-DHA, low-eicosapentaenoic acid marine oil; and group 4 (n = 6) received no supplementation. From before to after supplementation (2 and 8 wk postpartum), mean (+/-SD) maternal PP DHA increased in groups 1, 2, and 3 by 1.20 +/- 0.53, 0.63 +/- 0.82, and 0.76 +/- 0.35 mol% of fatty acids, respectively (23-41%), but decreased in group 4 by 0.44 +/- 0.34 mol% (15%). Breast-milk DHA of groups 1, 2, and 3 increased by 0.21 +/- 0.16, 0.07 +/- 0.11, and 0. 12 +/- 0.07 mol%, respectively (32-91%) but decreased in group 4 by 0.03 +/- 0.04 mol% (17%). Mean infant PP DHA in groups 1, 2, and 3 increased by 1.63 +/- 0.79, 0.40 +/- 1.0, and 0.98 +/- 0.61 mol%, respectively (11-42%), but only by 0.18 +/- 0.74 mol% (5%) in group 4. Correlations between the DHA contents of maternal plasma and breast milk and of milk and infant PPs were significant. Breast-milk and maternal and infant PP 22:5n-6 concentrations were lowest in group 2. DHA supplementation increases the plasma and breast-milk DHA concentrations of lactating women, resulting in higher PP DHA concentrations in infants.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2000 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Some humans and animals with inherited retinal degenerations (RD) have lower blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) than controls. As a result of recent studies, clearly the low blood 22:6n-3 phenotype is found in multiple RD phenotypes and no mutation thus far identified in humans or animals is involved in lipid metabolism. Therefore, it seems reasonable to suggest that the primary defect is not in 22:6n-3 metabolism, but rather in some common convergent pathway that ultimately leads to the reduction of blood and tissue 22:6n-3 levels. One possibility is that the different mutations produce a metabolic stress that provokes structural and biochemical adaptive changes in photoreceptor cells and their rod outer segments. If the stress is oxidant, the retina could downregulate 22:6n-3 and upregulate antioxidant defenses. How such a stress could lead to changes in blood levels of 22:6n-3 is not obvious. However, the consistent finding of the 22:6n-3 phenotype in many different retinal degeneration genotypes suggests that some form of communication exists between the retina and other tissues that serves to reduce blood levels of 22:6n-3.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Lipids

  • No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Lipids
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    ABSTRACT: Dogs were born to mothers fed commercial diets low or enriched in n-3 fatty acids and raised on those diets until they were about 50 d old. Retinas were removed, lipids were extracted, and total phospholipids were analyzed for fatty acid and molecular species composition. Animals from the low n-3 group had significantly lower retinal levels of 22:6n-3 and higher levels of n-6 fatty acids, especially 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-6. There was no difference in the retinal levels of 18:2n-6, and only small differences were found in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The most dramatic differences in molecular species occurred in 22:6n-3-22:6n-3 (4.7 vs. 0.8%) and 18:0-22:6n-3 (27.6 vs. 14.4%); total molecular species containing 22:6n-3 were significantly lower in the low n-3 group (45.5 vs. 24.0%). Molecular species containing 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-6 were greater in the low n-3 animals (13.0 vs. 25.7%), as were molecular species containing only saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (40.8 vs. 35.4%). These results show that modest differences in the amount of n-3 fatty acids in the diets of dogs can have profound effects on the fatty acid and molecular species composition of their retinas.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1999 · Lipids
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    M B Maude · E O Anderson · R E Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that persons with retinitis pigmentosa and Usher's syndrome have lower blood levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this study, the fatty acid composition of phospholipids from plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) was compared in persons with Usher's syndrome type I; Usher's syndrome type II; or no retinal disease (control subjects). Blood was drawn from fasting volunteers and separated into plasma and RBCs by centrifugation. Lipids were extracted and phospholipids were obtained by thin-layer chromatography. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. There were no differences in plasma or RBC phospholipid fatty acid composition between control subjects (n = 54) and persons with Usher's syndrome type II (n = 20). However, all 20- and 22-carbon PUFA levels from RBCs of persons with Usher's syndrome type I were lower than those from control subjects and persons with Usher's Syndrome type II. Likewise, plasma levels of 20:3n-6, 20: 5n-3, and 22:6n-3 were lower in Usher's syndrome type I compared with the control group. In contrast, plasma levels of 18:1n-9 and RBC levels of 16:0 and 18:1n-9 were higher in the group with Usher's syndrome type I. Plasma and RBCs from Usher's syndrome type I, but not type II, have lower levels of long-chain PUFAs than plasma and RBCs from control subjects.
    Preview · Article · Nov 1998 · Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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    G D Aguirre · G M Acland · M B Maude · R E Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: Results of a previous study show abnormal plasma lipids in progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd)-affected dogs, with lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and cholesterol levels but no differences in other plasma fatty acids, lipids, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins. There is also an increase of the DHA precursor 22:5n-3, so that the ratio of 22:5n-3 to 22:6n-3 is higher in affected than in normal dogs. Because DHA is the predominant esterified fatty acid in rod outer segment (ROS) phospholipids, these findings suggest a possible causal association between abnormal plasma lipid levels and retinal degeneration. In the current study, dietary supplements rich in 22:6n-3 were used to determine whether plasma, liver, and rod outer segment phospholipid composition can be altered to modify the prcd disease phenotype. prcd-affected and normal control dogs were given DHA-enriched supplements for short (7- and 25-day) and long (21-week) periods, and the fatty acid composition of plasma, liver, and rod outer segment phospholipids were examined. In the long-term study, electroretinography and morphology were used to assess modification of the retinal degeneration phenotype. Administration of DHA-enriched supplements resulted in increases in plasma DHA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and in decreases in some n-6 fatty acids in normal and prcd-affected dogs. Similar increases in DHA and n-3 fatty acids were observed in the liver, but affected dogs had significantly higher levels at all supplementation time points examined. In contrast, the ROS of affected dogs had statistically lower (approximately 20%) DHA levels, and these levels could not be increased with dietary supplementation. The disease phenotype could not be modified by DHA-enriched supplements. Regardless of the sustained three- to fourfold elevation in plasma and liver DHA that occurs as the result of supplementation, the ROS DHA levels remain unchanged, and the prcd disease phenotype is not modified by the dietary manipulation. These findings could be the result of a reduction in the synthesis of DHA-containing phospholipids in the retinas of affected dogs; or, alternatively, there could be a reduction in DHA uptake, transport, or storage within the retinal pigment epithelium-photoreceptor complex.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 1997 · Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced blood levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported in humans and animals with inherited retinal degenerations. The lipid and fatty acid compositions of plasma, retina, and retinal pigment epithelium of the Swedish Briard dog, which has a very slowly progressive retinal dystrophy that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner were analysed. The lipid class composition of the pigment epithelium was not different between affected and normal dogs; however, significant differences were found between the retinas of the two groups. Affected dogs had relatively more phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol and less phosphatidylcholine than normal dogs. There was no difference in the fatty acid compositions of plasma and retinal pigment epithelium between affected and normal dogs. However, the retinas of affected dogs had significantly lower levels of 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 and higher levels of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, and 22:5n-6. The total n-3 fatty acid content was significantly lower in affected retinas (P < 0.001), whereas the content of n-6 fatty acids was significantly higher in affected retinas (P < 0.001). These studies provide evidence for yet another animal model of inherited retinal degeneration with a defect in retinal polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. The fatty acid pattern in affected dogs resembles that seen in the retina in n-3 fatty acid deficiency.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Experimental Eye Research
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    ABSTRACT: It has previously been shown that miniature poodles with progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD) have lower plasma levels of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) than normal poodles and it has been suggested that affected animals have a defect in the metabolism of 22:6n-3. To test this hypothesis in vivo, PRCD-affected and normal miniature poodles were given daily oral supplements of linseed oil (enriched in 18:3n-3). Blood was drawn from food-deprived animals at predetermined times before, during and after supplementation, and plasma lipid fatty acids were analysed. There were no differences in the levels of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 22:5n-3 between affected and normal dogs. Therefore, there appears to be no abnormality in the elongation and desaturation system that takes 18:3n-3 to 22:5n-3. Surprisingly, the plasma level of 22:6n-3 was reduced in both groups following supplementation, but to a significantly greater extent in affected dogs. This resulted in a significantly higher 22:5n-3/22:6n-3 ratio in affected animals. These results support the earlier suggestion of an abnormality in 22:6n-3 metabolism in PRCD-affected miniature poodles. To determine the effect of n-3 supplementation on polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in dogs (not as a function of disease), results from both groups of dogs were pooled and compared at times before and near the end of supplementation. Dietary 18:3n-3 led to predictable increases in 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 22:5n-3, but to a decrease in 22:6n-3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    No preview · Article · Mar 1994 · Experimental Eye Research
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    H G Gülcan · R A Alvarez · M B Maude · R E Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the difference between macular and peripheral regions, tissue samples of human retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch's membrane/choroid were dissected and analyzed for lipid composition. To facilitate dissections and enhance the recovery of tissues, eyecups were prefixed for 1 hour in 10% formalin (pH 7). Lipids were extracted from 4-mm trephined punches of tissues and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. After separation of neutral lipids and phospholipids, total fatty acids in both lipid classes were quantitated. The major phospholipid classes in retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch's membrane/choroid were phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl inositol, and phosphatidyl serine; the major fatty acids were palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and oleic (18:1). Although the three tissues had similar total fatty acid and phospholipid components, their relative compositions were different. Neutral lipid/phospholipid ratios in retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane/choroid were almost three times higher than in the retina. This study provides information about the lipid composition of macular and peripheral regions of the human retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch's membrane/choroid. The methodology employed enabled study of lipids in small amounts of tissue, which will be of value in investigating the biochemical aspects of age-related macular degeneration.
    Preview · Article · Nov 1993 · Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

  • No preview · Article · Sep 1992 · Experimental Eye Research

  • No preview · Article · Oct 1991 · Experimental Eye Research
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    ABSTRACT: The miniature poodle with progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd) is a model for human retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Since previous studies from several laboratories have shown abnormalities in plasma lipids in human RP, we examined the plasma lipids of prcd-affected animals. Fasting blood was drawn on three separate occasions from affected and control miniature poodles and on one occasion from normal Irish setters and those affected with a different inherited retinal degeneration (rod-cone dysplasia). Plasma phospholipids from prcd-affected animals had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3) and cholesterol, compared to control miniature poodles. No differences were observed in plasma levels of phospholipids, vitamin E, or vitamin A, and no lipid differences were found between control and affected Irish setters. The ratios of 22:5 omega 3 to 22:6 omega 3 and of 22:4 omega 6 to 22:5 omega 6 were significantly elevated in prcd-affected poodles compared to controls. Since the conversion of 22:5 omega 3 to 22:6 omega 3 and of 22:4 omega 6 to 22:5 omega 6 is catalysed by a delta 4-desaturase, these results are consistent with a defect in desaturase activity in the prcd-affected poodle.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1991 · Experimental Eye Research
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    ABSTRACT: It is possible that a genetic defect observed in the prcd poodle involves the abnormality of an enzyme which functions in phospholipid or lipoprotein metabolism. In our studies thus far, we have been unable to detect any defect in retinal phospholipid biosynthesis, but we have noted a decrease in plasma levels of 22:6w3 which may be a result of an enzyme defect in liver biosynthesis of 22:6w3 from its dietary precursor, linolenic acid, or some defect in the blood lipoprotein transport of this essential fatty acid. If 22:6w3 is essential to the normal elaboration and functioning of the photoreceptor outer segment, it is possible that decreased access to this fatty acid due to lower blood levels of 22:6w3 could cause photoreceptor abnormalities. Further studies are needed to confirm the possible defect in delta-4 desaturase activity and possible dietary modification of the course of this prcd retinal degeneration.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1989 · Progress in clinical and biological research
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    ABSTRACT: Retinitis pigmentosa, of unknown cause, has recently been associated with decreased amounts of the polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, in the plasma of affected as compared with unaffected relatives. It has been suggested that this finding may serve as a marker for the disease and might indicate alterations in photoreceptor cell metabolism. The authors studied 54 members of a family with dominantly inherited retinitis pigmentosa in five generations. In addition to the typical clinical findings of retinitis pigmentosa, eight persons also had a bull's eye maculopathy, and four persons had uni- or bilateral optic nerve drusen. When the authors determined the plasma fatty acid and lipid contents, they saw the expected age-related effect on cholesterol and triglycerides, but an unexpected, significant reduction in fatty acids in the unaffected controls as compared with persons with retinitis pigmentosa. The authors' results emphasize the heterogeneity of phenotypic expression of retinitis pigmentosa within a single family.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1989 · Ophthalmology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 1987 · Experimental Eye Research
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    ABSTRACT: Oil droplets are observed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of both light- and dark-adapted rats. The accumulation of these droplets is strongly correlated with the clearance of large phagosomes that are found on a circadian basis in the RPE. Although strongly correlated with phagosomes in this way, the composition of the oil droplets does not resemble the lipid composition of rod outer segments (ROS). The important differences are that most of the 18:0 fatty acid (stearic) and virtually all of the polyunsaturated ones (principally docosahexaenoic, 22:6) are absent from the droplets. The major (greater than 95%) constituents of the droplets are triglycerides admixed with small amounts of vitamin A esters (less than 5%). This result suggests that certain of the ROS lipids, especially the polyunsaturated fatty acids, are cleared quickly from the RPE and are, perhaps, recycled to the neural retina. Such a process would account for the known ability of the retina to conserve the polyunsaturates despite dietary deficiencies.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1986 · Experimental Eye Research
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    ABSTRACT: Previous evidence suggests that lipid peroxidation may initiate photoreceptor damage induced by constant light exposure. In order to investigate the role of the antioxidant vitamin E in light damage, Long-Evans (pigmented) rats were atropinized and exposed to constant fluorescent light (Vita-Lite) of 10-20 foot candles for intervals up to 5 days. Following light exposure, retinal rod outer segments (ROS) were prepared and their lipids extracted. Retinas processed in parallel for morphological examination showed progressive ROS deterioration and selective loss of photoreceptor cells at 3 and 5 days of constant light. Similar to previous observations in undilated albino rats, constant illumination resulted in the specific loss of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3) in the ROS. A novel finding in this study was an increase in the content of vitamin E relative to lipid phosphorus, stearic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in the ROS of constant light-exposed animals.
    Preview · Article · Jun 1986 · Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

Publication Stats

1k Citations
141.34 Total Impact Points


  • 1972-1999
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Cullen Eye Institute
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1991
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • School of Veterinary Medicine
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1980
    • Texas Medical Center
      Houston, Texas, United States